Notes Describe Identify Livestock

Notes Describe Identify Livestock - AnS 101: Describing and...

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AnS 101: Describing and Identifying Livestock (Beef, Sheep, Swine, Goats) Introduction Discussions of livestock almost always involve descriptions and comparisons of individual animals. Often, livestock managers use terminology and a “language” that has specific meaning to others involved in the business. As a student of animal science it is important to learn this language so that you can participate in these discussions. The following is a taxonomy of the ways in which livestock are described and compared. It certainly is not a complete dictionary of the terms that one may encounter in the livestock industries, but serves as a way of organizing concepts. One may also find regional differences in the way in which livestock are described, and sometimes the meaning of terms evolve over time (for example “old-fashioned” cattle, or “modern-type” hogs has a different meaning every few years). You will want to learn the terms presented here so that you are more conversational in the discipline. Similar information will be presented on the other domestic species of focus in our class as we come to them during the semester. Breed/Class of Breeds Breeds are described in variety of ways. With regards to livestock breed descriptions and identification presents a real challenge to the student because many variations, and regional differences in definitions and preferences exist. Crossbreeding and selection trends create new descriptions for what otherwise is referenced as the same breed. For example, Simmental cattle are originally yellow and white, but in the US most now are solid black. Breed names (often have descriptive clues. For example Brangus- a composite; Yorkshire – a region of England; or Friesian Milk Sheep – productive use). Color Purpose (maternal, paternal or dual purpose) Physical characteristics Performance characteristics Origins, History of development or use Color, Patterns of Color Sheep: black, white faced, black points, Cattle: white faced, baldy, roan, smokey, brindle Swine: colored, white, roan, blue butt, belted Distinguishing Physical Characteristics There are several categories in which livestock are visually described and compared. When describing or comparing livestock with interest in their “composition” (meaning potential carcass characteristics – the stuff we eat), then one might describe the animal in terms of . . Muscling (thickness) Trimness (fat) When describing muscle, trimness and skeletal differences (both size and structure), one might consider looking in the following areas! For muscle differences in: Beef Swine Sheep Look for differences in the: quarter ham leg loin loin loin
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rib - - rack shoulder shoulder shoulder For trimness differences in: Beef Swine Sheep Look for differences in the: brisket -- breast flank flank flank crotch/cod crotch crotch middle belly/middle middle dewlap jowl -- For skeletal differences in: Beef Swine Sheep Look for differences in the:
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Notes Describe Identify Livestock - AnS 101: Describing and...

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