101 AU18 Exam 2 Study Guide_10.25.18-2.docx - PSYCH 101 Study Guide Exam 2 AU18 Updated Chapter 4 Development Across the Lifespan Prenatal Development

101 AU18 Exam 2 Study Guide_10.25.18-2.docx - PSYCH 101...

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PSYCH 101 Study Guide: Exam 2 AU18 Updated 10/25/18 Chapter 4: Development Across the Lifespan Prenatal Development Phases of growth Infancy & Childhood: Physical Development Brain development: early experiences are important – strengthen some pathways, weaken others o What area of the brain continues developing throughout childhood and adolescence? Motor development: guided primarily by genes o Reflexes emerge early, may be adaptive/survival-related o Variation in the age (timing) but not the order of stages of motor skill building o Dynamic systems theory suggests biology-culture interaction Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: emphasizes interactions with the physical world o Assimilation vs. accommodation = processes in building schemas about the world o Sensorimotor stage (0-2): babies take in the world through senses Lack object permanence o Preoperational stage (2-6): babies/kids can’t perform mental operations Lack understanding of principle of conservation Egocentric Develop theory of mind about others o Concrete operational stage (6-11): kids can think about the concrete (physical) world; understand conservation of matter and can do mathematical transformations Trouble thinking about things they can’t see or physically interact with o Formal operational stage (12+): kids/adults can think abstractly, imagining hypothetical realities and logically deducing consequences Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development: emphasizes interactions with the social world o Scaffolding, zone of proximal development Eye movements can reveal what babies are thinking. Babies have sophisticated thought processes much earlier than we previously realized, such as ______________________________. Note: textbook material on language development will not appear on this test Infancy & Childhood: Social Development Moral development o What moral qualities do babies show? (Bloom) o Altruism and helping, three types of prosocial behavior (Dunfield) o Theory of mind Attachment o Harlow’s monkey studies (cloth vs. wire mother) – importance of contact comfort o Ainsworth’s “strange situation” – measured stranger anxiety & separation anxiety; demonstrated that children have different attachment styles: Secure attachment Insecure-anxious (ambivalent) attachment
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Insecure-avoidant attachment o Effects of childhood neglect or abuse on attachment style; sensitive period for developing attachments Self-control o Delay of gratification o Grit & growth mindset Adolescence Physical Development o Puberty
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