hms_3163

hms_3163 - Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and...

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Genomic Medicine: Basic Molecular Biology Children’s Hospital Informatics Program Children’s Hospital Boston Harvard Medical School Massachusetts Institute of Technology www.chip.org Basic Biology functions over a lifetime specific protein Organisms need to produce proteins for a variety of Enzymes to catalyze reactions Structural support Hormone to signal other parts of the organism Problem one: how to encode the instructions for making a Step one: nucleotides Atul Butte, MD Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.512: Genomic Medicine Prof. Atul Butte
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Basic Biology Naturally form double helixes Redundant information in each strand Complementary nucleotides form base pairs Base pairs are put together in chains (strands) Chromosomes chromosome We do not know exactly how strands of DNA wind up to make a Each chromosome has a single double-strand of DNA 22 human chromosomes are paired In human females, there are two X chromosomes In males, one X and one Y
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What does a gene look like? regulatory elements • There is a code for the start and end of the protein coding portion sequence syntax alone Each gene encodes instructions to make a single protein DNA before a gene is called upstream, and can contain Introns may be within the code for the protein Theoretically, the biological system can determine promoter regions and intron-exon boundaries using the Area between genes is repeated sequences between individuals The human genome contains 3 billion base pairs (3000 Mb) but only 35 thousand genes The coding region is 90 Mb (only 3% of the genome) Over 50% of the genome Long interspersed nuclear elements Short interspersed nuclear elements Long terminal repeats Microsatellites Many repeated sequences are different
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Genome size largest genome, right? 3000 Mb • Wheat has 17000 Mb We’re the smartest, so we must have the Not quite Our genome contains (~750 megabytes) E. coli has 4 Mb Yeast has 12 Mb Pea has 4800 Mb Maize has 5000 Mb Genomes of other organisms Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 Please see Figure 1 of Science. 1998 Nov 6; 282(5391): 1126-32. Chromosome 2 sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Gardner MJ, et al.
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mRNA is made from DNA proteins • The design of a protein needs to be duplicable from DNA within the nucleus cytoplasm, where the protein is formed Genes encode instructions to make mRNA is transcribed mRNA moves to the Digitizing amino acid codes • Proteins are made of 20 (21) amino acids
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course HST 512 taught by Professor Ramoni during the Spring '06 term at MIT.

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hms_3163 - Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and...

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