1_ The Science of Child Development .docx - Theory An organized set of ideas designed to explain and make predictions about development Theories of

1_ The Science of Child Development .docx - Theory An...

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TheoryAn organized set of ideas designed to explain and make predictions about development Theories of Child Development: Historical PerspectivesThe Biological PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective
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Psychosocial TheoryErik Erickson (1902-1994)Emphasis on social and cultural influencesSequence of stages defined by unique crisisJourney to adulthood is filled with obstacles The Learning PerspectiveIvan Pavlov (1849-1936)Classical conditioningPavlov’s dog
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The Learning PerspectiveJohn B. Watson (1878-1958)BehaviourismStrong emphasis on environmental influencesEndorses Locke’s tabula rasa theory“Little Albert” experimentOperant ConditioningB.F. Skinner (1904-1990)Focuses on outcome of behaviourReinforcementPositive reinforcementNegative reinforcementPunishment Social Cognitive TheoryAlbert Bandura (1925- )Imitation or observational learning Emphasizes:Role of environmentBehaviourCognitions (i.e. self-efficacy)Ex. Bobo doll experiment The Cognitive-Developmental PerspectiveJean Piaget (1896-1980)Infants, children, and adolescentsNaturally motivated to make sense of the physical and social world4 distinct stages in cognitive development
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The Contextual PerspectiveLev Vygotsky (1896-1934)CultureKnowledge, attitudes, beliefs, symbolic representations and behavioursAssociated with distinct groups of peopleProvides the context in which a child developsImportant influence from infancy to adolescence Ecological Systems TheoryUrie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005)Various environment influencesEnvironment is a series of embedded systemsMicrosystemMesosystem
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ExosystemMacrosystemChronosystemNewer Approaches to Child DevelopmentInformation processing theoryEvolutionary theoryDevelopmental psychopathology Information-Processing TheoryHuman mind is similar to computerEmphasizes the “parts” of human developmentDevelopment reflects changes in Mental hardwareMental softwareEvolutionary Theory Evolution shapes behaviour and characteristicsSurvival of infants and childrenGrandparent-grandchild relationshipsEvolutionary developmental psychology Developmental Psychopathology
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