Theory●An organized set of ideas designed to explain and make predictions about development Theories of Child Development: Historical PerspectivesThe Biological PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective
Psychosocial Theory●Erik Erickson (1902-1994)○Emphasis on social and cultural influences○Sequence of stages defined by unique crisis○Journey to adulthood is filled with obstacles The Learning Perspective●Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)○Classical conditioning○Pavlov’s dog
The Learning Perspective●John B. Watson (1878-1958)○Behaviourism○Strong emphasis on environmental influences○Endorses Locke’s tabula rasa theory○“Little Albert” experimentOperant Conditioning●B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)○Focuses on outcome of behaviour○Reinforcement■Positive reinforcement■Negative reinforcement■Punishment Social Cognitive Theory●Albert Bandura (1925- )○Imitation or observational learning ○Emphasizes:■Role of environment■Behaviour■Cognitions (i.e. self-efficacy)○Ex. Bobo doll experiment The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective●Jean Piaget (1896-1980)○Infants, children, and adolescents○Naturally motivated to make sense of the physical and social world○4 distinct stages in cognitive development
The Contextual Perspective●Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)○Culture○Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, symbolic representations and behaviours○Associated with distinct groups of people○Provides the context in which a child develops○Important influence from infancy to adolescence Ecological Systems Theory●Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005)○Various environment influences○Environment is a series of embedded systems■Microsystem■Mesosystem
■Exosystem■Macrosystem■ChronosystemNewer Approaches to Child Development●Information processing theory●Evolutionary theory●Developmental psychopathology Information-Processing Theory●Human mind is similar to computer●Emphasizes the “parts” of human development●Development reflects changes in ○Mental hardware○Mental softwareEvolutionary Theory ●Evolution shapes behaviour and characteristics○Survival of infants and children○Grandparent-grandchild relationships●Evolutionary developmental psychology Developmental Psychopathology
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- Fall '13
- Developmental Psychology, Cortisol, child development research