Chapter 15 notes.docx - I[Introduction Sherman Land II The Meaning of Freedom A Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom 1 African-Americans understanding of

Chapter 15 notes.docx - I[Introduction Sherman Land II The...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

I. [Introduction: Sherman Land] II. The Meaning of Freedom A. Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom 1. African-Americans’ understanding of freedom was shaped by their experience as slaves and observation of the free society around them. 2. Blacks relished the opportunity to demonstrate their liberation from the regulations (significant and trivial) associated with slavery. B. Families in Freedom 1. The family was central to the postemancipation black community. 2. Freedom subtly altered relationships within the family. 1. Emancipation increased the power of black men within the family. 2. Black women withdrew from work as field laborers and house servants to the domestic sphere. B. Church and School a. Blacks abandoned white-controlled religious institutions to create churches of their own. b. Blacks of all ages flocked to the schools established by northern missionary societies, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and groups of ex-slaves. C. Political Freedom a. The right to vote inevitably became central to the former slaves’ desire for empowerment and equality. b. To demonstrate their patriotism, blacks throughout the South organized Fourth of July celebrations. D. Land, Labor, and Freedom a. Former slaves’ ideas of freedom were directly related to land ownership. 1. Many former slaves insisted that through their unpaid labor, they had acquired a right to the land. B. Masters without Slaves a. The South’s defeat was complete and demoralizing. 1. Planter families faced profound changes. b. Most planters defined black freedom in the narrowest manner. B. The Free Labor Vision a. The victorious Republican North tried to implement its own vision of freedom. 1. Free labor b. The Freedmen’s Bureau was to establish a working free labor system. B. The Freedmen’s Bureau a. The task of the Bureau—establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and aged, settling disputes, etc.—was daunting, especially since it had fewer than 1,000 agents. b. The Bureau’s achievements in some areas, notably education and health care, were striking. C. The Failure of Land Reform
Image of page 1
a. President Andrew Johnson ordered nearly all land in federal hands returned to its former owners. b. Because no land distribution took place, the vast majority of rural freedpeople remained poor and without property during Reconstruction. c. Sharecropping came to dominate the cotton South and much of the tobacco belt. d. Sharecropping initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’ desire for labor discipline. D. The White Farmer a. The aftermath of the war hurt small white farmers.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 6 pages?

  • Spring '12
  • Wiese
  • Civil War, Reconstruction, Ulysses S. Grant, Reconstruction era of the United States, free labor, reconstruction act

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture