HY Module 4 Part One TermsParty loyalty– Most contests were decided by the smallest of margins. Electoral turnout remained exceptionally high, largely as a result of fierce party loyalty. Because the electorate was so evenly divided, party officials spared no effort to “get out the vote” in the hopes that a few extra votes could tip the contest in their favor. Political parties controlled candidates access to the ballot. To run as a Democrat or Republican, office seekers had to win their party’s approval. Once elected, candidates were beholden to their parties, which were controlled by party bosses. Patronage– The power of party bosses had an important effect on the power of the presidency. The office had great symbolic importance, but it’s occupants were unable to do very much exceptdistribute government appointments. The battle over patronage overshadowed all else during Haye’s unhappy presidency.James A. Garfield– Garfield began his presidency by trying to defy the stalwarts in his appointments and by showing support for civil service reform. He soon found himself embroiled in an ugly public quarrel with Conkling and the Stalwarts. It was never resolved. On July 2, 1881, only four months after his inauguration, Garfield was shot twice while standing in the Washington railroad station by an apparently deranged gunman (and un-successful office seeker) who shouted, “I am a Stalwart and Arthur is president now!” Garfield lingered for nearly three months but finally died, a victim as much of inept medical treatment as of the wounds themselves. Chester A. Arthur succeeded him.Sherman Anti-trust Act– By the mid-1880’s, fifteen western and southern states had adopted laws prohibiting combinations that restrained competition. But corporations found it easy to escape limitations by incorporating in states, such as New Jersey and Delaware, that offered them special privileges. If antitrust legislation was to be effective, its supporters believed, it
would have to come from the national government. Responding to growing popular demands, both houses of congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in July 1890, almost without dissent. Most members of congress saw the act as a symbolic measure, one that would help deflect publiccriticism but was not likely to have any real effect on corporate power. For over a decade after itspassing, the act – indifferently enforced and steadily weakened by the courts – had almost no impact. As of 1901, the Justice Department had instituted many antitrust suits against labor unions, but only fourteen against business combinations; there had been few convictions.McKinley Tariff– The republicans were more interested, however, in the issue they believed had won them the 1888 election: the tariff. Representative William McKinley of Ohio and senator Nelson W. Aldrich of Rhode Island drafted the highest protective measure ever proposed to Congress. Known as the McKinley Tariff, it became law in October 1890. But republican leaders apparently misinterpreted public sentiment. The party suffered a stunning reversal in the
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