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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989Part of Chinese democracy movement in 1989,Revolutions of 1989 and the Cold WarTiananmen Square in 1988DateApril 15 – June 4, 1989(1 month, 2 weeks and 6 days)Location400 cities nationwideBeijingTiananmen Square 39°54′12″N116°23′30″ECausedbyDeath of Hu YaobangEconomic reformInflationPolitical corruptionNepotismCareer prospectsRevolutions of 1989 in EuropeA lack of democracyGoalsA Communist Party without corruption,with democratic reforms, freedom of thepress and freedom of speechMethodsHunger strike, sit-in, occupation of publicsquareResultedinEnforcement of martial law in certainareas of Beijing executed by forcefrom June 3, 1989 (declared fromMay 20, 1989 – January 10, 1990,7 months and 3 weeks)Protesters (mainly workers) andrioters barricading the PLA troopsTiananmen Square protests of 1989TheTiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known inmainland China as theJune Fourth Incident(六四事件), werestudent-leddemonstrations inBeijing, the capital of thePeople'sRepublic of China, in 1989. More broadly, it refers to the popularnational movement inspired by the Beijing protests during thatperiod, sometimes called the'89 Democracy Movement(八九民). The protests were forcibly suppressed after the governmentdeclaredmartial law. In what became known in the West as theTiananmen Square Massacre,troops with automatic rifles andtanks killed at least several hundred demonstratorstrying to blockthe military's advance towardsTiananmen Square. The number ofcivilian deaths has been estimated variously from 180 to10,454.[1][4]Set against a backdrop of rapid economic development and socialchanges in post-Mao China, the protests reflected anxieties aboutthe country's future in the popular consciousness and among thepolitical elite. Thereforms of the 1980s had led to a nascentmarket economy which benefitted some people but seriouslydisaffected others; the one-party political system also faced achallenge of legitimacy. Common grievances at the time includedinflation, limited preparedness of graduates for the new economy,and restrictions on political participation. The students called fordemocracy, greater accountability,freedom of the press, andfreedom of speech, though they were loosely organized and theirgoals varied.[5][6]At the height of the protests, about a millionpeople assembled in the Square.[7]As the protests developed, the authorities veered back and forthbetween conciliatory and hardline tactics, exposing deepdivisions within the party leadership.[8]By May, a student-ledhunger strike galvanized support for the demonstrators around thecountry and the protests spread to some 400 cities.[9]Ultimately,China's paramount leaderDeng Xiaoping and otherCommunistParty elders believed the protests to be a political threat, andresolved to use force.

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Tiananmen Square, Deng Xiaoping, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang
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