Chapter II.docx - POLITICAL IDEAS AND IDEOLOGIES The nature...

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POLITICAL IDEAS AND IDEOLOGIES The nature of ideology In the social-scientific sense, ideology is a coherent set of ideas which provide a basis for organized political action Central features: 1) Account of existing power relationships 2) A model of a defined future 3) An outline of how political change can and should be brought about Competing definitions: Marxist, Liberal, Conservative Liberalism Key ideas: individualism, freedom, reason, equality, toleration, consent, constitutionalism Classical liberalism: a commitment to an extreme form of individualism; belief in ‘negative’ liberty Modern liberalism: characterized by a more sympathetic attitude towards state intervention; a broader ‘positive’ liberty which is linked to the personal development and flourishing of the individual Conservatism Key ideas: tradition, pragmatism, human imperfection, organicism, hierarchy, authority, property Paternalistic conservatism: often linked to the idea of ‘compassionate conservatism’ – consistent with ideas of hierarchy and duty. (Disraeli’s One-
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