CHAPTER 10: ELECTIONS Institutions of Elections: ● Principal Agent Relationship: ○ Consent Approach : Emphasizes the historical reality that the right of the citizen to participate in his or her own governance, mainly through the act of voting of other forms of consent , is designed by those in power to legitimate and strengthen their rule. By giving their consent, citizens provide this legitimation. (legitimate governance) ○ Agency Approach : Treats the typical citizen as someone who would much rather spend time and effort on his or her own private affairs than on governance. He or she therefore chooses to delegate governance to agents--politicians--who are controlled through elections. This approach emphasizes the control of agents. (control delegates) ● Four important features of US election law: ○ 1. (Who) universal adult suffrage--all citizens over the age of 17 have the right to vote. ○ 2. (How) Australian ballot. ○ 3. (Where) The United States selects almost all elected officials through single-member districts with equal populations. ○ 4. (What) What does it take to win? For most offices in the United States, the candidate who wins plurality
○Australian Ballot: An electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot. facilitated split-ticket voting (greater fragmentation in govt)●Where Americans Vote--Electoral Districts○Single-member District: An electoral district that elects only one representative--the typical method of representation in the United States. ○Electoral College: Each state is allocated votes in the electoral college equal to its number of US senators (2) plus its number of House members. DC is assigned 3 electors.Gerrymandering: The apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give advantage to one political party. Plurality Rule: A type of electoral system in which victory in an election goes to the individual who gets the most votes, but not necessarily a majority of the votes cast.Majority Rule: to win an office, a candidate must receive a majority (50% plus one) of all the votes cast in the relevant district.
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