Chapter 6 - Electronic Structure

Chapter 6 - Electronic Structure - Chapter 6 Electronic...

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Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 6.1 Wave Nature of Light Light has wave characteristics. quality or symbol definition units characteristic wavelength λ frequency ν . a m p l i t u d e A . speed c . energy E . Speed of a wave, “c” (for cellera—latin for speed) is given a s : c = λν unit analysis: meter/cycle x cycle/second = meter/second Energy of a wave is given as: E = h ν (will discuss Plank’s theory later) where h = Planck’s constant = 6.6261 x 10-34 J . s Electromagnetic Spectrum Microwaves UV Cosmic Rays V i s i b l e Radio waves IR X Rays Gamma Rays λ ν E
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Types of Electro- p2 magnetic radiation wavelength frequency Energy ( see p 219) meter/cycle Hz(cycle/sec) Joules . visible violet light . . 1.4 x 10 -14 . . 4 . 1 4 x 1 0 -25 . 1.01 x 10 10 . . 8.5 x 10 -9 . . 106.1 x 10 6 . SHOW YOUR WORK: WATCH SF'S USE UNITS c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec h= 6.63 x 10 -34 Joule . s Wave Interference http://online.cctt.org/physicslab/content/Phy1/lessonnotes/waves/lessoninterference.asp http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/waves/interference/intrfrnc.html Constructive Interference : Waves are in phase, amplitudes add. Destructive Interference: Waves are out of phase, amplitudes subtract. A Wave that constructively interferes with itself is called a standing wave. http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/mmedia/waves/swf.html _____________________________________________________
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6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons p3 Black Body Radiation and Max Planck. When objects get hot, they give off light. Classical Mechanics could not explain the shape of the curve. His assumption was that atoms vibrated in their crystal lattice with certain frequencies. The movement of the charged particles gives off light (like a sending antenna). His insight was that the frequencies occurred at only certain frequencies (separated by the constant named after him). This meant that the vibrations were discrete, not continuous. This had much greater impact than Planck or anyone guessed at the time. The equation which related the energy of the frequency of light and its energy E = h ν and because c = λν and ν = c/ λ E = hc/ λ http://www.astro.ubc.ca/~scharein/a311/Sim.html#Blackbody The Photoelectric Effect and Photons – Einstein. Light hits a target, and electrons are ejected. Electrons will not leave unless hit with enough energy. When hit with enough energy, the electrons leave with an energy related to the energy of light. Einstein interpreted this as particles of light hitting an electron in an atom, much like a billiard ball. This meant that light not only had wave characteristics, it had particle characteristics. The first person to refer to light as “corpuscular” was Isaac Newton, who named these particles photons. 6.3 Atomic Line Spectra and the Bohr Model
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Chapter 6 - Electronic Structure - Chapter 6 Electronic...

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