Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement 1.1 The Study of Chemistry Chemistry involves the study of the properties and behavior of matter. Matter:the physical material of the universe Matter has __________ and occupies ___________ Property: any characteristic that is peculiar to a type of matter, and enables us to distinguish it from other types of matter. On the basis of thousands of experiments and observations we can say the following: The basic building blocks of all matter are atoms. These combine in many different ways to make up all of the pure substances and mixtures that we experience, that we are made of. There are a limited number of types of different atoms. These different types of atoms are the different elements. The list of elements, arranged to reflect their atomic structure and their chemical and physical properties are given in the periodic table. A substance that cannot be broken down into anything chemically simpler is an element. Eg) Oxygen Carbon Copper Sulfur The fundamental unit of an element is an atom.
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However at standard conditions, some elements are p2made of molecules(2 or more atoms bonded together). These are still considered elements because all of the atoms in the molecule are chemically identical. Eg) O2 S8P4A compoundis pure substance whose smallest particle is a moleculewhich be made up of two or more elements. Eg) water table salt table sugar starchH2O NaCl C12H22O11(C6H11O5)n Properties of compounds not only depend on the identity of the elements making up the molecule, but also the structure of the molecule. (See Fig 1.1 p 2)All chemical changes involve rearrangement of atoms within molecules or rearrangement of molecules. Chemistry allows us to predict the behavior of matter, and to manipulate it. There is no piece of our consumer world that has not been manipulated by a chemist to accomplish a specific task. Areas as diverse as metallurgy, pharmacology, polymer design, fertilizer design, petrochemical purification and design. Areas of study as diverse as forensic science, archeology, geology, biology, agriculture are based on principles of chemistry. Therefore, chemistry can be called the “Central Science”.