Lower Respiratory Chapter_55 (1).ppt - Chapter 55 Drugs Acting on the Lower Respiratory Tract Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams

Lower Respiratory Chapter_55 (1).ppt - Chapter 55 Drugs...

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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 55: Drugs Acting on the Lower Respiratory Tract Chapter 55: Drugs Acting on the Lower Respiratory Tract
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Changes in the Airway With COPD Changes in the Airway With COPD
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Manifestations of COPD Manifestations of COPD Air is trapped in the lower respiratory tract The alveoli degenerate and fuse together The exchange of gases is greatly impaired
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Prevention and Treatment for COPD Prevention and Treatment for COPD Reduce environmental exposure to irritants Smoking cessation Filter allergens from the air Avoid exposure to known irritants and allergens Open the conducting airways through muscular bronchodilation Decrease the effects of inflammation on the airway lining
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Characteristics Progressive loss of lung compliance and increasing hypoxia Causes Cardiovascular collapse; major burns; severe trauma; rapid depressurization Treatment Reversal of the underlying cause combined with ventilatory support
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Use of Lower Respiratory Tract Agents Across the Lifespan Use of Lower Respiratory Tract Agents Across the Lifespan
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Xanthines Xanthines Facilitate respiration by dilating the airways Include two categories Sympathomimetics and Anticholinergics Aminophylline (generic) Caffeine ( Caffedrine , and others) Dyphylline (generic) Theophylline (generic)
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Xanthines Xanthines
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Xanthines (cont.) Xanthines (cont.) Contraindications GI problems, coronary disease, respiratory dysfunction, renal or hepatic disease, alcoholism, or hyperthyroidism Adverse Effects Related to theophylline levels in the blood GI upset, nausea, irritability, and tachycardia to seizure, brain damage, and even death Drug-to-Drug Interactions Many drugs interact with xanthines Nicotine increases the metabolism
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Nursing Considerations for Xanthines Nursing Considerations for Xanthines Assess: History and Physical Exam and known allergy Peptic ulcer, gastritis, renal or hepatic dysfunction, and coronary disease Monitor blood pressure, pulse, cardiac auscultation, peripheral perfusion, and baseline electrocardiogram Skin, BS, liver and renal function, appropriate lab values, as well as theophylline levels
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Prototype Xanthines Prototype Xanthines
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Prototype Xanthines (Continued) Prototype Xanthines (Continued)
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