easier_english_intermediate_dictionary.pdf

easier_english_intermediate_dictionary.pdf - EASIER ENGLISH...

This preview shows page 1 out of 733 pages.

Unformatted text preview: EASIER ENGLISH INTERMEDIATE DICTIONARY second edition EASIER ENGLISH second edition Preface This dictionary contains the essential words and phrases needed for everyday communication by learners of English and information on how these words and phrases are commonly used. It builds on the Easier English™ Basic Dictionary and is especially useful for intermediate learners of all ages who are expanding their vocabulary and knowledge of English. Each main word, including compound words and phrasal verbs, has its own easy-to-find entry in bold type and a pronunciation in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The relative frequency of the most commonly used words is indicated. Common phrases, verb patterns and idioms associated with the main term are shown in bold type and separately defined within the entry. The meanings of the main common senses of each word are given clearly and simply, using a limited and easily understood vocabulary. Meanings are grouped together by their part of speech. Examples are given for words that are likely to be used in practice, to provide patterns for the user’s own production of English sentences. The prepositions that are regularly used with a word are also shown for common words, in square brackets. Some less frequently encountered words, which may only need to be recognised and understood, are given definitions only. Noted at the end of some entries are words with a different part of speech whose meanings can be easily understood from the rest of the entry. Extra help is offered in Notes at the end of some entries. These include warnings about words which can be confused with each other and unusual inflected forms. The major differences between US and British spelling are noted. Parts of Speech abbr (abbreviation) adj (adjective) adv (adverb) article conj (conjunction) interj (interjection) modal verb n (noun) plural noun (always takes a plural verb) prefix prep (preposition) pron (pronoun) v (verb) Symbols    쐽 쑗 쏔  쒁 쏡 indicates words which are commonly used, from  the most basic and essential,  frequent and useful to know, to  starting to develop a wider vocabulary. before a new part of speech before examples before a phrase or idiom before an idiom an explanation of the word will be found at the place indicated extra information will be found at the place indicated Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary. Stress is indicated by a main stress mark (  ) and a secondary stress mark (  ) . Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Vowels Consonants  back b buck ɑ harm d dead ɒ stop ð other a type d jump aυ how f fare aə hire  gold aυə hour h head ɔ course j yellow ɔ annoy k cab e head l leave eə fair m mix e make n nil eυ go ŋ sing  word p print i keep r rest i happy s save ə about ʃ shop fit t take ə near tʃ change u annual θ theft u pool v value υ book w work υə tour x loch ' shut  measure z zone Intermediate.fm Page 1 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM A a1 /e/, A noun the first letter of the alpha- abattoir / bətwɑ / noun a place where a abattoir bet, followed by B 쑗 Do you mean ‘dependant’ spelt with an ‘a’ or ‘dependent’ with an ‘e’? 앳 from A to Z completely, all the way through a2 /ə, e/, an /ən, n/ article 1. one 쑗 an enormous hole 쑗 a useful guidebook 쑗 She’s bought a new car. 쑗 I want a cup of tea. 쑗 We had to wait an hour for the bus. animals are killed for meat abbey / bi/ noun 1. a place where a community of Christian monks or nuns live 2. a large church 쑗 Westminster Abbey abbreviated /ə bri vietd/ adj shortened by having something left out abbreviation /ə bri vi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a short form of a word. Compare acronym abdicate / bdket/ (abdicates, abdicating, abdicated) verb 1. to give up the position as king or queen of a country 2. to fail to carry out a duty or responsibility a (NOTE: an is used before words beginning with a, e, i, o, u and with h if the h is not pronounced: an apple or an hour. a is used before words beginning with all other letters and also before u where u is pronounced /ju / : a useful guidebook) 2. for each or to each 쑗 Apples cost £1.50 a kilo. 쑗 The car was travelling at 50 kilometres an hour. 쑗 He earns £100 a day. A&E / e ənd i / abbr accident and emergency aback /ə bk/ adv 왍 taken aback surprised and shocked by something unpleasant 쑗 She was somewhat taken aback when he told her there was no train that evening. abacus / bəkəs/ noun an object used for counting consisting of a frame with balls which can be moved on bars 햴 abandon /ə bndən/ (abandons, abandoning, abandoned) verb 1. to leave someone or something in an unkind way 쑗 The dog had been abandoned by its owner. 2. to leave somewhere for ever 쑗 The village had been abandoned when the dam was built. 3. to give up or stop doing something 쑗 The company has decided to abandon the project. 쑗 We abandoned the idea of setting up a London office. abandoned /ə bndənd/ adj no longer used or lived in abandonment /ə bndənmənt/ noun the act or process of leaving someone or something without help abashed /ə bʃt/ adj ashamed or embarrassed abate /ə bet/ (abates, abating, abated) verb to become less strong or forceful A&E aback | abacus abandon | abandoned | abandonment | abashed | abate | (formal) abbey abbreviated | abbreviation | | abdicate (formal) (NOTE: + abdication n) abdomen / bdəmən/ noun the space in abdomen the front part of your body, containing the stomach and other organs abdominal /b dɒmn(ə)l/ adj referring to the abdomen abduct /b dkt/ (abducts, abducting, abducted) verb to take someone away, usually by force (NOTE: + abduction n) aberration / bə reʃ(ə)n/ noun an action or thing which is not usual or expected abdominal | abduct | aberration | (formal) abhorrent /əb hɒrənt / adj horrible or disgusting (formal ) abide /ə bad/ (abides, abiding, abode or abided) verb 1. 왍 to abide by to keep to rules, agreements or customs 쑗 You must abide by the rules of the game. 쑗 We have to abide by the decision of the referee. 2. 왍 can’t abide something to dislike something or someone 쑗 I can’t abide the smell of cigars. 쑗 If you can’t abide him, why do you accept his invitation? abiding /ə badŋ/ adj lasting a long time abhorrent | abide | abiding | (formal) 햲 ability /ə blti/ (plural abilities) noun 1. a natural tendency to do something well [~in] 쑗 I admire his ability to stay calm unability | der pressure. 쑗 We can develop their natural abilities in music further. 왍 I’ll do it to the best of my ability I’ll do it as well as I can 2. the fact of being clever 쑗 suitable for different levels of ability (NOTE: no plural in this sense) Intermediate.fm Page 2 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM abject 2 abject / bdekt/ adj (formal) 1. very bad abject abject poverty 2. making you feel ashamed 쑗 an abject apology 쑗 abject terror ablaze /ə blez/ adv 1. on fire 쑗 Thirty hectares of trees were ablaze. 2. shining brightly 쑗 At midnight the house was still ablaze with lights. 햲 able / eb(ə)l/ adj 1. 왍 to be able to do something to be capable of something or have the chance to do something 쑗 They weren’t able to find the house. 쑗 Will you be able to come to the meeting? 2. good at doing something, or good at doing many things 쑗 She’s a very able manager. 쑗 There are special activities for able children. able-bodied / eb(ə)l bɒdid/ adj fit and healthy ably / ebli/ adv in a very competent or efficient way abnormal /b nɔ m(ə)l/ adj not normal abnormality / bnɔ mlti / (plural abnormalities) noun 1. the state of being abnormal 2. something which is abnormal aboard /ə bɔ d/ adv, prep on a ship or vehicle 쑗 The passengers went aboard the ‘Queen Elizabeth’ at 10 p.m. 쑗 When the ship docked, customs officers came aboard to inspect the cargo. abode /ə bəυd/ noun the place where someone lives (literary) 왍 of no fixed abode with no permanent address (formal) abolish /ə bɒlʃ/ (abolishes, abolishing, abolished) verb to get rid of something such as a law or right abolition / bə lʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of abolishing something such as a law or right abominable /ə bɒmnəb(ə)l/ adj very bad (formal) Aboriginal / bə rdn(ə)l/ adj referring to Aborigines 쐽 noun same as Aborig쑗 ablaze | able able-bodied ably abnormal | abnormality | aboard | abode | abolish | abolition | abominable | Aboriginal | ine doctor about? 2. 왍 to be about to do something to be going to do something very soon 쑗 We were about to go home when you arrived. 3. not exactly 쑗 I’ve been waiting for about four hours. 쑗 She’s only about fifteen years old. 왍 while you’re about it at the same time as the thing you are doing 쑗 While you’re about it, can you post this letter? 앳 how about? 1. what do you think about? 쑗 We can’t find a new chairperson for the club – What about Sarah? 2. would you like a cup of tea? 앳 while you’re about it at the same time as the thing you are doing 쑗 While you’re about it, can you post this letter? about-turn / əbaυt t# n/, about-face noun 1. an order to soldiers to turn to face in the opposite direction 2. an act of changing your plans or policy to the opposite of what you did before 햲 above /ə bv/ prep 1. higher than 쑗 The plane was flying above the clouds. 쑗 The temperature in the street was above 30 degrees. 쑗 At prices above £20, nobody will buy it. 2. older than 쑗 If you are above 18, you have to pay the full fare. 3. louder than 쑗 I couldn’t hear the telephone above the noise of the drills. above board /ə bv bɔ d/ adj openly honest and legal abrasive /ə bresv/ adj rude and impatient in dealing with people 쐽 noun a substance which rubs away a surface 쑗 Avoid using abrasives to clean this surface. abreast / ə brest/ adv side by side abridged /ə brdd/ adj shortened by removing parts of a text 햳 abroad /ə brɔ d/ adv in or to another country 쑗 I lived abroad for three years. abrupt /ə brpt/ adj 1. sudden 2. using few words and not being very polite abruptly /ə brptli/ adv briefly and impolitely abruptness /ə brptnəs/ noun the fact of using few words and not being very polite abscess / bses/ noun a collection of pus in the body abscond /əb skɒnd/ (absconds, absconding, absconded) verb (formal) 1. to leave somewhere suddenly and secretly [~with] 쑗 The sports club’s treasurer absconded with their funds. 2. to escape from prison abseil / bsel/ (abseils, abseiling, abseiled) verb to come down a cliff or wall using a fixed rope wound around your body about-turn | above | above board | abrasive | abreast | abridged | abroad | abrupt | abruptly | abruptness Aborigine /bə rdni/ noun an AusAborigine | tralian who is a member of the peoples who lived in Australia before Europeans arrived abort /ə bɔ t/ (aborts, aborting, aborted) verb 1. to stop something taking place 2. to perform an abortion on a foetus abortion /ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun the ending of a woman’s pregnancy before a live infant can be born abortive /ə bɔ tv/ adj attempted without success 햲 about /ə baυt/ prep 1. referring to something 쑗 He told me all about his operation. 쑗 What do you want to speak to the abort | abortion | abortive | about | | abscess abscond | abseil Intermediate.fm Page 3 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 3 햳 absence / bsəns/ noun the fact of being away from a place [~from] 쑗 She did absence not explain her absence from the meeting. 왍 in the absence of, in someone’s absence because someone or something is not there 쑗 In the absence of the chairman orIn the chairman’s absence, his deputy took over. 쑗 In the absence of any official support, we had to raise our own funds. 햴 absent / bsənt/ adj not there 쑗 Ten of the staff are absent with flu. absentee / bsən ti / noun a person who is not there absenteeism / bs(ə)n ti z(ə)m/ noun the act or fact of deliberately staying away from work absent-minded / bs(ə)nt mandd/ adj often forgetting things 햳 absolute / bsəlu t/ adj complete or total 햲 absolutely adv 1. / bsəlu tli / completely 쑗 I am absolutely sure I left the keys in my coat pocket. 2. / bsə lu tli/ yes, of course 쑗 Did you build it yourself? – Absolutely! absolve /əb zɒlv/ (absolves, absolving, absolved) verb to remove blame for a sin from someone 햴 absorb /əb zɔ b/ (absorbs, absorbing, absorbed) verb 1. to take in something such as a liquid 쑗 The water should be absorbed by the paper. 쑗 Salt absorbs moisture from the air. 2. to reduce a shock 쑗 The car’s springs are supposed to absorb any shock from the road surface. absorbent /əb zɔ bənt/ adj which can absorb something such as a liquid absorbing / əb zɔ bŋ/ adj very interesting absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun 1. the act of absorbing something or of being absorbed 2. the fact of being very interested in something abstain /əb sten/ (abstains, abstaining, abstained) verb 1. deliberately not to do something [~from] 쑗 His doctor recommended he should abstain from drinking coffee for six months. 2. not to vote on a matter abstention /əb stenʃən/ noun the act or fact of deliberately not voting on a matter abstinence / bstnəns/ noun the act or fact of deliberately not doing something, especially not drinking alcohol abstract / bstrkt/ adj 1. which exists only in the mind rather than in the physical absent absentee | absenteeism | absent-minded absolute absolutely | absolve | absorb | absorbent | absorbing | absorption | abstain | abstention | abstinence abstract accelerate world 2. (of art) which does not copy things exactly as they appear abstract noun / bstrkt naυn/ noun a noun that refers to an idea or quality, e.g. ‘truth’ absurd /əb s# d/ adj completely unreasonable or impossible to believe 쑗 It’s absurd to expect you will win the lottery if you only buy one ticket. abundance /ə bndəns/ noun a large quantity abundant /ə bndənt/ adj existing in large quantities abundantly /ə bndənt(ə)li/ adv in large or more than large enough quantities 햳 abuse1 /ə bju s/ noun 1. very bad treatment 쑗 the sexual abuse of children 쑗 She suffered physical abuse in prison. (NOTE: no plural in this sense) 2. a bad use of something 쑗 The government’s action is an abuse of power. 3. rude words 쑗 The people being arrested shouted abuse at the police. (NOTE: no plural in this sense) abuse2 /ə bju z/ (abuses, abusing, abused) verb 1. to treat someone very badly, usually physically or sexually 쑗 She had been abused as a child. 2. to make the wrong use of something 쑗 He abused his position as finance director. 3. to say rude things about someone 쑗 The crowd noisily abused the group of politicians as they entered the building. abusive /ə bju sv/ adj 1. rude and insulting 쑗 an abusive letter 쑗 He had too much to drink and became abusive. 2. treating someone in a violent or cruel way, or referring to a violent and cruel situation 쑗 an abusive father 쑗 an abusive relationship abysmal /ə bzm(ə)l/ adj extremely bad abyss /ə bs/ noun 1. a deep hole 2. a horrible or frightening situation 햳 academic / kə demk/ adj 1. relating to study at a university 쑗 Members of the academic staff received a letter from the principal. 2. only in theory, not in practice 쑗 It is only of academic interest. 쐽 noun a university teacher 쑗 All her friends are academics. academy /ə kdəmi/ noun 1. a college where specialised subjects are taught 2. a private society for the study of art or science accelerate /ək seləret/ (accelerates, accelerating, accelerated) verb to go faster 쑗 Don’t accelerate when you get to traffic lights. abstract noun absurd | abundance | abundant | abundantly | abuse | abuse | abusive | abysmal | abyss | academic | academy | accelerate | Intermediate.fm Page 4 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM accelerator 4 햴 accelerator /ək seləretə/ noun a accelerator | pedal which makes a car go faster accent / ksənt/ noun 1. a particular way of pronouncing something 쑗 He speaks with an American accent. 2. the stronger or louder part of a word or sentence 쑗 In the word ‘letter’ the accent is on the first syllable. 3. a mark over a letter showing a particular way of pronouncing it 쑗 Café has an accent on the ‘e’. 4. emphasis 쑗 The accent is on youth unemployment. accentuate /k sentʃuet/ (accentuates, accentuating, accentuated) verb to put emphasis on something 햲 accept / ək sept / (accepts, accepting, accepted) verb 1. to take and keep a present 쑗 We hope you will accept this little gift. 2. to say ‘yes’ or to agree to something 쑗 She accepted the offer of a job in Australia. 쑗 I invited her to come with us and she accepted. (NOTE: Do not confuse with exaccent accentuate | accept | cept.) 햴 acceptable /ək septəb(ə)l/ adj good acceptable | enough to be accepted, although not particularly good 쑗 Fighting in the street is not acceptable behaviour. 쑗 Smoking is becoming less socially acceptable. 쑗 A small gift of flowers would be very acceptable. 쑗 The offer is not acceptable to the vendor. 햴 acceptance /ək septəns/ noun 1. the act of taking something which is offered 2. the act or fact of agreeing to do something 햴 accepted /ək septd/ adj which is taken as correct by most people 햲 access / kses/ noun a way of reaching a place 쑗 The concert hall has access for wheelchairs. 쑗 At present there is no access to the site. 왍 to have access to something to be able to reach a place, meet a person, or obtain something 쑗 I’ll have access to the studio day and night. 쑗 The company has access to substantial funds. 쐽 verb (accesses, accessing, accessed) to get information from a computer 쑗 She tried to access the address list. access course / kses kɔ s/ noun a course of study designed to qualify someone for higher education accessible /ək sesb(ə)l/ adj 1. easily reached 쑗 They live on a farm which is not accessible by car. 2. easy to read or understand 쑗 Her style of writing is quite accessible. 3. suitable for disabled people 쑗 accessible toilets 쑗 accessible holidays 햴 accessory /ək sesəri/ (plural accessories) noun 1. a useful piece of equipment, added to others 2. a small item of clothing 3. a person who helps someone acceptance | accepted | access access course accessible | accessory | commit a crime [~to] 쑗 an accessory to the crime 햲 accident / ksd(ə)nt/ noun 1. an unpleasant thing which happens and causes damage or injury 쑗 He lost his leg in an accident at work. 쑗 She was involved in a car accident and had to go to hospital. 2. something that happens unexpectedly 쑗 Their third baby was an accident. 앳 by accident without being planned or expected 쑗 He found the missing papers by accident. accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adj happening without being planned or expected 쑗 an accidental meeting 쑗 accidental damage 쑗 His death was not accidental. accidentally / ks dent(ə)li/ adv without being planned or expected acclaim /ə klem/ noun great praise acclaimed /ə klemd/ adj much praised, especially publicly accolade / kəled/ noun a thing given to someone as a sign of praise 햴 accommodate /ə kɒmədet/ (acaccident accidental | accidentally | acclaim | acclaimed | accolade accommodate | commodates, accommodating, accommodated) verb to provide someone with a place to live accommodating /ə kɒmədetŋ/ adj accommodating | taking trouble to help people 햳 accommodation /ə kɒmə deʃ(ə)n/ noun a place to live or somewhere to stay for a short time 쑗 Are you still looking for accommodation? 쑗 Visitors have difficulty in finding hotel accommodation during the summer. (NOTE: In British English, accomaccommodation | | modation has no plural.) accompaniment /ə kmp(ə)nimənt/ accompaniment | noun 1. music played to accompany some- one singing or playing an instrument 쑗 a piece for violin with piano accompaniment 2. a thing which accompanies something 쑗 They served cranberry sauce as an accompaniment to the turkey. 햳 accompany /ə kmp(ə)ni/ (accomaccompany | panies, accompanying, accompanied) verb 1. to go with someone or something 쑗 She accompanied me to the door. 2. to play a musical instrument while someone else plays another instrument or sings 쑗 She sang and was accompanied on the piano by her father. (NOTE: acco...
View Full Document

  • Fall '18
  • 2
  • Plural, theft, Grammatical number, Chairman

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern