Acid and Base.doc - Acid-Base Theory Contents I Background 1 Arrehnius Theory 2 Brnsted-Lowry Theory II Acid-Base Theories 1 Lewis Acid-Base Theory 2

Acid and Base.doc - Acid-Base Theory Contents I Background...

This preview shows page 1 - 8 out of 34 pages.

Acid-Base Theory Contents I Background 1 Arrehnius Theory 2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory II Acid-Base Theories 1 Lewis Acid-Base Theory 2 Lux-Flood Theory 3 Hard-Soft Acid-Base Theory III Measurements of Acidity & Basicity IV Descriptive Chemistry of Acids & Bases
Image of page 1
I Background Ø What is Arrhenius (Ostwald) Theory? Ø What is Arrhenius acid and Arrhenius base? Acid - proton donor, Base – hydroxide donor Ø What is the core concept of Arrhenius Theory? Ø What is ionization theory? Ø Why is water special to Arrhenius Theory? Ø What is self-ionization? Ø Are there other substances that can have self ionization?
Image of page 2
Ø What is the Brønsted-Lowry Theory? Ø What is the difference between the Arrhenius Theory and the Brønsted-Lowry Theory? Acid – proton donor, Base – proton acceptor Ø What’s the physical meaning of Brønsted- Lowry Theory? 1 competition for protons rather than proton & hydroxide donors 2 A-B conjugate 3 insight of the atom transfer processes 4 useful in non-aqueous systems Substances that have auto-dissociation (self- ionization) Aqueous system :
Image of page 3
2 H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - K w = 1.0x10 -14 at 24.8 °C, 1 atm Neutral point: (1/2)pK w = 7.0 leveling effect The acidity and basicity in the aqueous solutions are limited by H + and OH . The acidity of any substance is stronger than H + or the basicity is stronger than OH will be leveled off. This is called “ leveling effect ”. 2 EtOH EtOH 2 + + EtO - K AB = 10 -20 2 NH 3 NH 4 + + NH 2 - K AB = 10 -29 2 H 2 SO 4 H 3 SO 4 + + HSO 4 - 2 OPCl 3 OPCl 4 - + OPCl 2 + (Cl transfer) (phosphoryl halides)
Image of page 4
Solvolysis A process in which the solute can combine with the ionic component of the solvent or have the solvent ionized. 1 Hydrolysis combination of H + in water NaOAc + H 2 O HOAc + NaOH OPCl 3 + 3 H 2 O OP(OH) 3 + 3 HCl 2 Non-aqueous solvolysis OPCl 3 + PCl 5 OPCl 2 + + PCl 6 - Alcoholysis OPCl 3 + 3 ROH OP(OR) 3 + 3 HCl Gutman elaborates the reaction of Me 4 N + Cl and ferric chloride in phosphoryl chloride as solvolysis via chloride-transfer pathway.
Image of page 5
Me 4 N + Cl - Me 4 N + + Cl - OPCl 3 FeCl 3 + OPCl 3 FeCl 4 - + OPCl 2 + OPCl 2 + + Cl - OPCl 3 As for the amphoteric substance, such as Al(OH) 3 is insoluble in water, but dissolves in strong acid and strong base. Similarly, Al 2 (SO 3 ) 3 is insoluble in liquid sulfur dioxide, but dissolves by adding SOCl 2 or CsSO 3 . Question: Does the reaction of thionyl chloride with sulfite undergo solvolysis in SO 2 ? n A clever experiment of isotope labeling shows no exchange between 32 SOCl 2 and 35 SO 2 . n No oxygen exchange observed for the reverse reaction either. n However, the halide exchange between SOCl 2 and SOBr 2 was observed.
Image of page 6
Lewis Acid-Base Theory In water: B(OH) 3 +H 2 O→H + +B(OH) 4 , so B(OH) 3 is an Arrehnius acid.
Image of page 7
Image of page 8

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 34 pages?

  • Spring '17
  • Alvin
  • Bases, Acids, Acid-base chemistry, Lewis Base

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes