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CHAPTER 1IntroductionWhat is Logic? Logic is the study of principles and methods ofgood reasoning. It is a science of reasoningwhich aims to determine and lay down thecriteria of good (correct) reasoning and bad(incorrect reasoning).Logic being the science of correct reasoning isindispensable in the field of law. The efficiency ofpracticing depends on the quality of legalreasoning. What is Legal Reasoning?Legal Reasoning is what we used when weapplied laws, rules and regulations to particularfacts and cases; It is what we used when weinterpret Constitutions when we balancefundamental principles and policies. When weevaluate pieces of evidence and makejudgments to render legal decisions. How is legal reasoning expressed? It is expressed through Arguments. It is witharguments that logic is chiefly concerned. What is an argument? It is a group of statements in which onestatement is claimed to be true on the basis ofanother statement. The statement that is beingclaimed to be true is called the conclusion; andthe statement that serves is the basis or thesupport of the conclusion is called the premise.Please note that all groups of statements arearguments. An argument has a conclusion and apremise. How do you distinguish explanation from anargument?In order to distinguish explanation from andargument, we need to ask a key question,is the speaker’s intent to prove or establish thatsomething is the case – that is to providereasons or evidence for accepting a claim astrue ; or is it his or her intent to explain whysomething is the case – that is to offer anaccount why something has occurred. If the former, the passage is an argument; if thelatter, the passage is an explanation. What are the components of legalreasoning? Essential components are as follows, to wit: 1.Issue of the argument- What is beingargued?An issue is an any matter of controversy oruncertainty; a point in dispute, in doubt or inquestion- or simply up for discussion orconsideration.2.Rule– What legal rules govern theissueOne must be able to cite a rule and apply it to alegal set of facts. According to Richard Neumann, rules have atleast three parts: (1) a set of elements,collectively called a TEST. (2) a RESULT thatoccurs when all the elements (3) CAUSALTERM that determines whether the result ismandatory,prohibitory,discretionaryordeclaratory. 3.Fact– What are the facts that arerelevant to the rule cited?For legal analysis, we look for MATERIALFACTS. These are the facts that fit the elementsof the rule. 4.Analysis– How applicable are the factsto the said rule?This is where the argumentation or illustrationcome out. This is supposed to show the linkbetween the rules and facts. 5.Conclusion– What is the implication ofapplying the rule to the given facts?