Lab1.docx - LAB 1 Tension Test Chi Zhang Wai Chuen Chan CEE...

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LAB 1: Tension Test Chi Zhang Wai Chuen Chan CEE 300/TAM 324 Section: AB5 TA: Gaurav Singhal February 15, 2018 1
ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment is to discover the tensile behavior of six common construction materials as they do in real world. Mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, yield strength, ultimate strength, and ductility are determined for those material. Tensile tests were performed on a dog-bone shaped of six different specimens, which are Gray cast iron (Cast iron), 1045 cold-rolled steel (1045 CR), 1045 normalized steel (1045 NM), 6061-T6 aluminum (6061-T6 Alum), 304 stainless steel (304 S. S.) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Based on the experiment result and analysis after the experiment, 1045 CR, 1045 NM, 6061-T6 Aluminum and 304 S.S. all have cup- cone shape fractures, necking regions and therefore characterized as ductile material. Materials, Cast Iron and PMMA, all have flat shape fracture and unobservable deformation. Thus, those materials are characterized as a brittle material. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Mechanical Properties and Material The mechanical properties of a material are those properties that involve a reaction to an applied load. Mechanical properties are essential since it helps us to determine the range of usefulness of material and help us to classify and identify the material. The most common properties of a material are strength, ductility, hardness, impact resistance, and fracture toughness. [11] Typical uses for gray cast iron include housing, such as pump housings, valve bodies. Real world application for 1045 steel include axles various, bolts or connecting rods. [9] Typical uses for 6061-T6 aluminum include builders of boats, watercraft or bicycle frames. [10] Utilization of 304 stainless steel include kitchen 2
and food applications. [8] Typical uses for polymethylmethacrylate include a substitute for glass in shatterproof windows, skylights or aircraft canopies. [7] 1.2 Tension Test A tension test is a test which used to determine the mechanical properties of a material. This test helps to determine the reaction of the specimen under tensile force. The test will be conducted by using an Instron Model 4400 load frame, deforming the specimen at a constant rate until failure occurs. The elongation and load data are collected on a computer data acquisition system connected to the load frame. Extensometer will also be needed for the experiment. It helps to determine the elongation of the specimen. 1.3 Engineering Stress To reduce the geometrical factor in a result of the tensile test, the parameter of load and elongation data are standardized. The first parameter of that is engineering stress. [ 1] Engineering stress is defined as the applied load divided by the original cross-sectional area of a material. Engineering stress is also known as nominal stress. The equation to calculate engineering stress is given as: σ = F A o Where F is the tensile load applied to the specimen in unit newton (N); σ denotes engineering stress with unit pascal (Pa) , and A o represents the cross-sectional area of the specimen before

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