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chapter2 - Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics A Scientific...

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      Chapter 2   Plate Tectonics:  A Scientific  Revolution Unfolds
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        Continental drift:  An idea  before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin of Continents and Oceans Continental drift hypothesis Supercontinent called Pangaea began breaking apart about 200 million years ago
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        Key Concepts Continental drift hypothesis (evidence) Magnetic field of the Earth Variation of inclination with latitude Reversals of the geomagnetic field Determining paleo-position of continents Plate Tectonics (location and depth of earthquakes) Types of plate boundaries Divergent (oceanic and continental rifts) Convergent (subduction zones) Ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, continent-continent) Transform (sliding along vertical shears)
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      Continental drift:  An idea  before its time Continental drift hypothesis Continents "drifted" to present positions Evidence used in support of continental drift hypothesis Fit of the continents Fossil evidence Rock type and structural similarities Paleoclimatic evidence
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        The great debate Objections to the continental drift hypothesis Lack of a mechanism for moving continents Wegener incorrectly suggested that continents broke through the ocean crust, much like ice breakers cut through ice Strong opposition to the hypothesis from all areas of the scientific community
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    The great debate Continental drift and the scientific method Wegener’s hypothesis was correct in principle, but contained incorrect details A few scientists considered Wegener’s ideas plausible and continued the search
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    Continental drift and  paleomagnetism Renewed interest in continental drift initially came from rock magnetism Magnetized minerals in rocks Show the direction to Earth’s magnetic poles Provide a means of determining their latitude of origin
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    Magnetic terminology Inclination-angular deviation of magnetic vector from horizontal Declination-angular deviation of magnetic vector from true north (geographic north)
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    Figure 2.10
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    Continental drift and  paleomagnetism Polar wandering
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