chapter3 - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Key Concepts...

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      Chapter 3   Matter and Minerals
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        Key Concepts Definition of a mineral and a rock Atomic structure and terminology Major element chemistry (size and charge) Bonding (ionic, covalent, metallic) Mineral compositions (fixed vs. solid solution) Olivine and Plagioclase (solid solution examples) Physical properties (brief, Moh’s scale of hardness) Mineral structure (polymorphs, intro to phase diagrams) Silica tetrahedron and classification of silicates Non silicates (carbonates, sulfates, oxides, etc.)
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        Minerals:  Building blocks  of rocks Mineral   Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure  (crystalline vs. amorphous) Definite chemical composition Rock A solid aggregate of minerals or other  inorganic solids (amorphous, glassy)
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        Are the following “ Minerals” coal window glass petroleum gall stones oyster shells snow ice in glaciers pearls synthetic diamonds
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        Composition of minerals Elements Basic building blocks of minerals and  everything else Over 100 are known (92 naturally  occurring) Atoms Smallest particles that retain all the  characteristics of an element
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        Composition of minerals Atomic structure Central region called the  nucleus protons (+ charge, mass = 1 amu)  neutrons   (0 charge, mass = 1 amu) electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the  nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called  shells Most of the atom is empty space
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    Chemical Terminology  Atomic number (Z) = # protons Atomic weight (A) = # protons + # neutrons Valence = charge on cation(+) anion (-) Isotopes of element: same Z, different A C 6 12 C Z A C 6 14 N 7 14 stable vs. unstable  radioactive  isotopes
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    Abundance of Elements Fe O Si Mg Ca Al K Na S Ni Whole Earth Crust Fe Fe O O Si Si Mg Al
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Olinsky during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.

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chapter3 - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Key Concepts...

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