FNH FINAL CHEEAT SHEET.docx - Lesson 1 Food science...

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Lesson 1: Food science: principles of science & engineering to study & acquire new knowledge on physical, chemical & biochemical aspects of food. Food Technology:quality & safety of food. Food science discoveries:canning(Nicholas Appert) Rapid freezing- Clarence Birdseye-of fish in extremely low temperatures preserved thequality of fish better. Apple processing & storage: Controlled Atmosphere storage (Ca) increasing the carbon dioxide & decreasing the oxygen. Lesson 2: Colloidaldispersions: particles of one substance are distributed (dispersed phase) in another substance (continuous phase) without dissolving Emulsion: dispersed(internal) &continuous (external). Can be o/w eg.milk or w/o eg.butter ); Food dispersions: solid+liquid= sol(suspension of large molecules dispersed in liquid), liq+sol= gel(dispersion of water held within a continuous matrix of polysaccharides or starch), gas+liquid= foam (dispersion of gas bubbles distributed within a liquidphase, ex: beaten egg whites), gas+sol=solid foam(ice cream, when gas bubbles distributed within a solid phase), liq+liq= emulsion (milk, mayonnaise-suspension of liquid droplets within a liquid medium); liq+sol= solid (butter, dispersion of liquid droplets within a solid phase)LOW fat Mayonnaise-oilphrase dispersed in highest proportion (in vinegar), remains oil/water, unstable, adding oil-rate and order important(emulsifiers needed), egg yolk= emulsifier (surrounds theoil droplets, the droplets are immobilized and water in vinegar cannot flow because immobilized oil droplets scattered through. Major & Minor components: Major:1.Carbohydrates: organic compounds, body’s main source of energy, digestible carbohydrates-> 4cal/gram, contribute 50% of daily intake, complex rather than simple,food from plant sources: fruits, veggies, grain and legumes, Simple carbs (mono & disaccharides): table sugar, sweetness determined by their molecular structure andinteraction w/ sensory receptors in tongue, Complex carbs(polysaccharides):(starch, fibre, cellulose) Monosaccharides: glucose(70-80 s.i.), fructose(140 s.i.),galatose: simple sugar: not chemically bonded to other sugar molecules, main function: ability to impart sweetness. Disaccharidesunion of 2 monosaccharides molecules,can be split by: enzymes or boiling with dilute acid- Sucrose(100 s.i) glucose + fructose -> 1:1 glucose: fructose (invert sugar: sucrose hydrolyzed by enzyme(invertase)->sweeter, sucrose substitute in candy making, hygroscopic=affinity for moisture (prevents chewy candies from drying out) honeycontains glucose andfructose (40:60 ratio), used to be invert but then part of the glucose becomes gluconic acid through invertase in the honey bee’s saliva. Lactose(10-20 s.i.)galactose+glucose, can be fermented (in yogurt, cheese) by lactic acid bacteria-> lactic acid (acidulant, preservative), Lactose intolerance: hydrolyzed by the enzymelactase, lactose-hydrolyzed milk. Maltose(20 s.i.)= glucose + glucose, formed from starch by enzymatic (amylase) or acid hydrolysis, fructose- chep. Functionalproperties: Sweetening power: (s.i), sweetness is not correlated to calories, but amount used.

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