chapter10 - Key Terms and Concepts Structural geology:...

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        Key Terms and Concepts Structural geology: deals with displacement and deformation Stress and strain, types of each Rock behavior: brittle vs. ductile (faults and fractures vs. folds) Strike and Dip Fold terminology: limb, axis and axial plane, hinge Symmetric, asymmetric, overturned, recumbent Anticline vs. syncline Dome vs. basin Fault terminology: dip-slip, strike-slip, oblique Normal vs. reverse Strike slip: right- and left-lateral Fault types and relation to principal stresses ( σ 1 , σ 2 , σ 3 ) Fault types at plate boundaries
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Structural Geology What is Structural Geology » Deals with movement (displacement) of rocks and internal deformation » Geologic structures--features produced by rock deformation (faults, fractures, folds, some types of mountains)
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Importance of Structures Unravel Earth history Energy resources » Gas and petroleum hide in natural structures Earthquake research Siting of engineered structures » Dams, bridges, nuclear power plants, etc.
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Types of Pressure (Review) Confining pressure (Confining stress) Differential Stress » tension - pull apart » compression -push together » shear - scissor action
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Stress, Strain, Rupture How do rocks respond to stress? They deform or break. » Strain - deformation - elastic and plastic Elastic strain - rock returns to original shape when stress is relieved Plastic strain - deformation permanent » Brittle failure (fracture) - rupture, breakage » The mechanical properties of rocks (e.g., strength) determine how they respond to stress
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Olinsky during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.

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chapter10 - Key Terms and Concepts Structural geology:...

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