Foodborne Illness - Foodborne Illness Why is Awareness of...

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Foodborne Illness 3/4/08 Why is Awareness of Food Safety Essential? “It is now possible to produce a product anywhere, using resources from anywhere, by a company anywhere, to be sold anywhere.” The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ranking of Food Hazards: 1. Microbial contamination (salmonella E choli etc.) 2. Naturally occurring toxicants (toxic mushrooms, toxic algae in a marine environment are eaten by shell fish, etc.) 3. environmental contaminants (e.g. metals) 4. nutritional problems (i.e. malnutrition and under-nutrition, an obesity crisis) 5. pesticide residues (highly regulated) 6. food additives (highly regulated) Definitions: Foodborne disease = any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with one or more disease-producing agents. These include bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi and their products as well as toxic substances not of microbial origin. Five classes of foodborne illnesses: 1. Infection: a disease state caused by the presence of viable, usually multiplying organisms at the site of inflammation. Examples include: Bacteria (salmonella, campylobacter), viruses (hepatitis A, noroviruses), Protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora) and other parasites (Trichinella sprialis is a worm associated with pork) 2. Intoxication: a disease state, caused by exposure to a toxic chemical, that is not mediated immunologically and is not primarily the result of a genetic deficiency. Examples include: Bacterial toxins (staphylococcal poisoning, botulism), Algal toxins (saxitoxin, ciguatoxin), Mycotoxins (produced by fungi), Poisonous animal tissues (puffer fish), Poisonous plant tissues (toxic mushrooms and many other naturally occurring plants), and Chemicals (heavy metals, scombroid fish or histamine poisoning 3. Metabolic food disorder: a disease state caused by exposure to a chemical that is toxic to certain individuals only because they exhibit some genetic deficiency. Examples include: lactose intolerance and favism 4. Allergy = a disease state caused by exposure to a particular chemical that (often proteinaceous) to which certain individuals have a heightened sensitivity (hypersensitivity); has an immunological basis (Imunoglobulin E). Proteins (heat resistant and resistant to digestion): cow’s milk ( β - lactoglobulin, casein) and eggs (ovalbumin)). Small molecules (penicillin) 5. Idiopathic illness: any illness where they don’t know what caused the illness, Exp: Chinese Restaurant Syndrome food illness from MSG in combination with other
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foods). Another example is hyperkinesis (children ingest too much food coloring causing hyperactivity)
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course ENVIRONMEN 471 taught by Professor Martykanarek during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Foodborne Illness - Foodborne Illness Why is Awareness of...

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