Why is Awareness of Food Safety Essential? “It is now possible to produce a product
anywhere, using resources from anywhere, by a company anywhere, to be sold
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ranking of Food Hazards:
Microbial contamination (salmonella E choli etc.)
Naturally occurring toxicants (toxic mushrooms, toxic algae in a marine
environment are eaten by shell fish, etc.)
environmental contaminants (e.g. metals)
nutritional problems (i.e. malnutrition and under-nutrition, an obesity crisis)
pesticide residues (highly regulated)
food additives (highly regulated)
Foodborne disease = any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated
with one or more disease-producing agents. These include bacteria, parasites, viruses,
fungi and their products as well as toxic substances not of microbial origin.
Five classes of foodborne illnesses:
Infection: a disease state caused by the presence of viable, usually multiplying
organisms at the site of inflammation. Examples include: Bacteria (salmonella,
campylobacter), viruses (hepatitis A, noroviruses), Protozoa (Cryptosporidium,
Cyclospora) and other parasites (Trichinella sprialis is a worm associated with
Intoxication: a disease state, caused by exposure to a toxic chemical, that is not
mediated immunologically and is not primarily the result of a genetic deficiency.
Examples include: Bacterial toxins (staphylococcal poisoning, botulism), Algal
toxins (saxitoxin, ciguatoxin), Mycotoxins (produced by fungi), Poisonous animal
tissues (puffer fish), Poisonous plant tissues (toxic mushrooms and many other
naturally occurring plants), and Chemicals (heavy metals, scombroid fish or
Metabolic food disorder: a disease state caused by exposure to a chemical that is
toxic to certain individuals only because they exhibit some genetic deficiency.
Examples include: lactose intolerance and favism
Allergy = a disease state caused by exposure to a particular chemical that (often
proteinaceous) to which certain individuals have a heightened sensitivity
(hypersensitivity); has an immunological basis (Imunoglobulin E).
Proteins (heat resistant and resistant to digestion): cow’s milk (
lactoglobulin, casein) and eggs (ovalbumin)).
Small molecules (penicillin)
Idiopathic illness: any illness where they don’t know what caused the illness, Exp:
Chinese Restaurant Syndrome food illness from MSG in combination with other