Foodborne Illness II

Foodborne Illness II - Foodborne Illness II 3/6/08 In the...

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Foodborne Illness II 3/6/08 In the gastrointestinal tract there are 3 centers (Musocal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)): 1. Lamina propria: B, T, and null cells, macrophages (engulf pathogens) 2. Peyer’s patches: B and T cells, macrophages, M cells 3. Lymph nodes: areas where the Lymph, along with many cells and particles it carries (notably lymphocytes, macrophages, and foreign antigens) drains out of tissues and seeps across the thin walls of tiny lymphatic vessels. The vessels transport the mix to lymph nodes, where antigens can be filtered out and presented to immune cells. When the host defense system is impaired, risk increases: At risk populations Antacids increase the stomachs pH and allows foodborne pathogens to pass through the stomach Consumption of a large volume of liquids reduces the time that organisms are in the stomach, therefore increasing their chances of survival Consumption of fatty foods: the fat protects the pathogens Chronic maladies associated with diarrhea: Arthritis, kidney damage, heart disease, and neurological damage Arthritis associated with Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, or Yersinia infection: 1. 2% of exposures trigger arthritis (100-200,000 cases of reactive arthritis from foodborne illness a year) 2. Associated with the HLA-B27 antigen (histocompatibility antigen), 20% of these individuals develop arthritis 3. Gullain-Barre Syndrom (a neurological condition) where gastrointestinal illness precedes GBS in 10-30% of cases. The result of GBS is paralysis and sometimes death. Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Lives in the GI tract of most mammals, many are not harmful Gram negative organism, motile (peritrichous flagella), rods that belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Member of the coliform group which by definition ferment lactose to acid and gas, E coli is a member of the fecal coliform group that can produce acid and gas at higher temperatures than other bacteria. About 30% of serotypes cause disease in humans or animals Types of pathogenic E coli: 1. Enteroaggregative: causes prolonged diarrhea (up to 14 days) with bloody stool when the tips and sides of intestinal villi are blunted or destroyed. 2. Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) (E coli 0157H7): the most common type of e coli in the U.S. Cattle is the known presumed reservoir. It causes abdominal cramps with bloody diarrhea, no fever or leukocytes in stool. Infection can lead to renal failure after a prodrome of gastroenteritis. It is non-invasive and produces Shiga-like toxins, also called verotoxins.
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3. Enteroinvasive (EIEC): causes dysentery, diarrhea with blood, mucous, and leukocytes. It is invasive and destroys intestinal epithelial cells following invasive and proliferation by the organism. It resembles Shigella
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Foodborne Illness II - Foodborne Illness II 3/6/08 In the...

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