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Unformatted text preview: CIVIL LAW REVIEWER By DESIDERIO P. JURADO Associate Justice, Court o f Appeals; Pre-Bar Reviewer-Civil Law, San Beda College of Law; Ateneo College of Law; UP College of Law; FEU College of Law Twenty First Edition 2009 Philippine Copyright, 2009 by . DESIDERIO P. JURADO ISBN 978-971-23-5284-3 No portion of this book may be copied or reproduced in books, pamphlets, outlines or notes, whether printed, mimeographed, typewritten, copied in different electronic devices or in any other form, for distribution or sale, without the written permission of the author except brief passages in books, articles, reviews, legal papers, and judicial or, other official proceedings with proper citation. Any copy of this book without the correspond­ ing number and the signature of the author on this page either proceeds from an illegitimate source or is in possession of one who has no authority to dispose of the same. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY THE AUTHOR To the two thousand and thir­ teen loves of my life, Nena, my twelve children and my bar candidates, this book is affectionately dedicated. PREFACE TO THE 2009 EDITION With a deep sense of pride, we are once more bringing out the revised edition of this book. This edition contains the most recent Supreme Court decisions on Civil Law, as recent as 2008. It likewise contains the recent bar questions up to 2007. Through the years, this Reviewer has remained to be a handy manual on Civil Law for the bar candidates, law professors, all lawyers actively engaged in the law practice and even judges. As was observed by our father, this Reviewer can even be used as a veiy convenient text for the Civil Law Review classes. We hope that somehow, this Reviewer shall continue to be of help to them. Just like the other books of Justice Jurado, this book is a “product of a hard discipline - the discipline of fine, unselfish scholarship,” one that is to be remembered as his masterpiece...a treasured legacy.” In closing, we wish to acknowledge the assistance of all those who have supported us, most specially our “Manong,” Mr. Juanito F. Fontelera, owner and publisher of the R e x B o o k S t o r e , our mother “Mama Nena” and our brother, Richard B. Jurado, for their encouragement and support. Quezon City, Philippines, August 23, 2008. By: JUSTICE ROLAND B. JURADO Associate Justice, Sandiganbayan; Former RTC Judge Branch 76, Malolos, Bulacan; Former MTC Judge, Branch 2, Malolos, Bulacan; Former Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor, Caloocan City; Professor of Law - FEU, UE, MLQU and SSC; BSC; Ll.B. (FEU) ATTY. ROSARIO JURADO-BENEDICTO Vice-President and Head, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Legal Services Division; Partner, Benedicto, Verzosa, Burkley & Associ- 3s; Former Corporate Secretary/Assistant Corporate Secretary and gal Officer of the Filinvest Group of Companies, and the Francisco del Rosario Group of Companies; Private Practitioner, Dizon, iculdo, Jurado, Jurado, Vitug and Associates; Former Professor, E.U. School of Business; Former Professor of San Sebastian Col*e of Law; A.B. and Ll.B. (U.P. Diliman) ATTY. RUDOLF PHILIP B. JURADO Private Practitioner, The Law Firm of R.P.B. Jurado; Former .rtner, Culvera, Waytan & Jurado Law Offices; Former Trial Lawr, Coronel Law Office; Professor, MLQU School of Law; Former ofessor U.E. College of Law and Lyceum College of Law; B.S.C., ,B. (U.E.) and ATTY. ROBERT B. JURADO Consultant, Housing and Urban Development and Coorditing Council (HUDCC); Private Practitioner; Former Director, gislative Bills and Index Services, Senate of the Republic of the lilippines and HUDCC; Former Consultant to the Office of the ce President of the Philippines; Former Trial Lawyer, Marbibi w Office, Electrical Engineering (N.U.); Ll.B. (F.E.U.) PREFACE TO THE 1989 EDITION Law, including the Civil Law, is always changing. Since the last edition was published in 1986, many changes have been intro­ duced particularly on the subject of Persons and Family Relations and Succession with the passage of the Family Code. This edition incorporates these changes in the field and accounts for its size. Assistance to bar candidates, law professors and lawyers ac­ tively engaged in the practice of law was the objective of the 1986 edition. It is still the objective of this edition. Much of the inspira­ tion that went into this work came from our father — the hero, the Justice, the Professor and the author. Through our relationship with him, we have learned to hold the assurance that the disappoint­ ments which we experience, nay, even his departure, are actually blessings in disguise to draw us closer to God and to the ideals which our father committed himself in his lifetime, the love for the Civil Law being foremost among them. Such love shall always be remembered as a treasured legacy. We, the wife and the children of the late Justice Desiderio P. Jurado, are indebted to a number of persons for help with this edition. Preeminent among them are Justice Alicia V. Sempio-Diy of the Court of Appeals, Prof. A. Gutierrez and A. Buencamino. We are likewise thankful to all those who, in one way or the other, as­ sisted and gave us the support in the preparation of this edition. Quezon City, Philippines, July 1989. By ROLAND (Judge, Municipal Trial Court, Branch 2, Malolos, Bulacan; Former Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor, Caloocan City; Former Legal Consultant, Metro Manila Commission; Professor, San Sebastian College of Law; BSC; Ll.B. (F.E.U.); and ROSARIO (Manager, Legal Services Division, Bank of the Philippine Islands); Attorney-at-Law, Leonen, Ramirez and Associates; Former Corporate Secretary and Legal Officer of the Filinvest Group of Companies and the Francisco V”. del Rosario Group of Companies; Former Professor, F.E. U. School of Business; AB; Ll.B. (U.P.). vii I PREFACE TO THE 1981-1982 EDITION It is with a sense of pride that we are again bringing out a new edition of this Reviewer. This edition now contains all of the most important deci­ sions, in summarized or modified form, of the Supreme Court on Civil Law, whether landmark, illustrative, or even abandoned, up to 1981. It also contains all of the most important bar questions, whether oft-repeated or off-beat, up to 1981. It also contains the salient features of the Child and Youth Welfare Code (P.D. No. 603, as amended), the Condominium Act (Rep, Act No. 4726), the Water Code of the Philippines (P.D. No. 1067), the Decree on Intellectual Property (P.D. No. 49), the Realty Installment Buyer Protection Act (Rep. Act No. 6552), the new House Rental Law (Batas Pambansa Big. 25) and other laws or decrees which have either repealed or modified provisions of the Civil Code of the Philippines or decisions of the Supreme Court. In the process, we have added hypothetical problems, not off-beat, which may help bar examiners in formulat­ ing reasonable and fair questions and problems which will really test the mettle of bar candidates. Additionally, we have included as appendices the bar questions of 1980 and 1981, some presidential decrees and some new decisions. With the above-mentioned additions and interpolations, this Reviewer has indeed become a handy manual on Civil Law not only for bar candidates and law professors but also for lawyers actively engaged in the practice of the law. As a matter of fact, many judges and law practitioners, who, at some time or another, once listened to our lectures on Civil Law, have told us that they are using it as a sort of guide for further research. It can even be used as a very convenient text for both Civil Law Review 1 and Civil Law Review 2 in the regular law course. In our case, we have been prescribing it as the basic text not only in our Pre-Bar review courses at the UP Law Center, Ateneo de Manila University, San Beda College of Law, Far Eastern University, University of Santo Tomas, Uni­ versity of Manila, Manila Review Center and others, but also in our Civil Law Review 1 & 2 courses at the Schools of Law of San sda College, Far Eastern University, University of Santo Tomas, niversity of Manila, Lyceum of the Philippines, Philippine Law ;hool, Adamson University, San Sebastian College and others here we had the privilege to teach the subjects. Thus, once again we offer this Reviewer to the bar candidates ho are presently reviewing for the bar examinations as well as all lovers of Civil Law, be they judges, lawyers or students. We *ay and hope that it will continue to be of help to them. Manila, Philippines, March 25, 1982 D. P. JURADO TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages PRELIMINARY TITLE........................................................... 1 Effect and Application of Laws...................................... Human Relations............................................................ 1 33 BOOK I. - PERSONS Title I. - CIVIL PERSONALITY.......................................... CITIZENSHIP AND DOMICILE................................... 62 67 Title J. - MARRIAGE............................................................ 69 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Requisites of Marriage................................ Marriages Exempt from the License Requirement................................................. Void and Voidable Marriages.................... 69 82 87 Title I I - LEGAL SEPARATION......................................... Title III. - RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE.................................................. Title IV. - PROPERTY RELATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE.................................................. 139 Chapter 1 General Provisions...... ................................ Chapter 2 Donations by Reason of Marriage............. Chapter 3 , System of Absolute Community................ 139 143 151 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 General Provisions.................................. What Constitutes Community Property............................................. Charges Upon and Obligations of the Absolute Community....................... Ownership, Administration, Enjoyment and Disposition of Community Property................... Dissolution of Absolute Community Regime............................................... 3d 120 135 151 152 153 155 156 Section 6 Chapter 4 Liquidation of the Absolute Community Assets and Liabilities........................................... 158 Conjugal Partnership of Gains.................. 161 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section Section Section Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 General Provisions.................................. Exclusive Property, of Each Spouse....... Conjugal Partnership Property............. Charges Upon and Obligations of the Conjugal Partnership...................... 5 Administration of the Conjugal Partnership Property....................... 6 Dissolution of Conjugal Partnership Regime............................................... 7 Liquidation of the Conjugal Partnership Assets and Liabilities........................................... Separation of Property of the Spouses and Administration of Common Property by One Spouse During the Marriage.......................................... Regime of Separation of Property............. Property Regime of Unions Without Marriage................ ................................ ;le V. - THE FAMILY........................................................ Chapter 1 Chapter 2 161 165 173 187 193 196 197 201 207 208 214 The Family as an Institution..................... Family Home............................................. 214 215 tie VI. - PATERNITY AND FILIATION..... !................... 222 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Legitimate Children........................................... 222 Proof of Filiation................................................. 230 Illegitimate Children.......................................... 238 Legitimated Children......................................... 241 tie VII. - ADOPTION......................................................... tie VIII. - SUPPORT.......................................................... tie IX. - PARENTAL AUTHORITY.................................. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 General Provisions....................................... Substitute and Special Parental Authority................................................ Effect of Parental Authority Upon the Persons of the Children....................... xii 246 258 267 267 274 277 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Effect of Parental Authority Upon the Property of the Children...................... ......280 Suspension or Termination of Parental Authority............................. .. 282 Title X. - EMANCIPATION AND AGE OF MAJORITY...................................................................... ......284 Title XI. - SUMMARY JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS IN THE FAMILY LAW.........................................................286 Title XII. - FINAL PROVISIONS..............................................286 PROVISIONS OF THE CIVIL CODE AND P.D. NO. 603 AS AMENDED, WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN REPEALED BY THE FAMILY CODE..... 287 FUNERALS.............................................................................. ..... 287 CARE AND EDUCATION OF CHILDREN......................... ......288 USE OF SURNAMES....................................................................295 ABSENCE................................................................................ ......299 CIVIL REGISTER................................................................... ......301 BOOK II. - PROPERTY, OWNERSHIP, AND ITS MODIFICATIONS Title 1. - CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY................... ......308 Title II. - OWNERSHIP..............................................................327 Right of Accession........................................................... ......332 Quieting of Title.............................................................. ......362 Title III. - CO-OWNERSHIP......................................................364 Title IV. - SOME SPECIAL PROPERTIES....................... ......380 Title V - POSSESSION..............................................................385 Title VI. - USUFRUCT...............................................................406 Title VII. - EASEMENTS OR SERVITUDES.................... ......415 Title VIII. - NUISANCE.............................................................437 BOOK HI. - DIFFERENT MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP GENERAL PRINCIPLES..............................................................442 Title I. - OCCUPATION.............................................................444 Law ................................................................................. ......446 Tradition.......................................................................... ......447 Title II. - INTELLECTUAL CREATION......................... .........449 Title III. - DONATION...............................................................453 xiii Title IV. - SUCCESSION......... ............................................ Chapter 1 Chapter 2 490 General Provisions.... .................................. Testamentary Succession............................ 490 497 Section 1, W ills........................................................... Wills in General........ ............................................. Testamentary Capacity and Intent............ .......... Forms of Wills, Witnesses, and Codicils.............. Revocation, Republication and Revival of Wills..................................................... Allowance and Disallowance of W ills.................. Section 2. Institution of Heirs-............................... Section 3. Substitution of Heirs......... ..................... Section 4. Testamentary Dispositions............ ........ Section 5. Legitime........ .......................................... Reserva Troncal...................................................... Distribution of Estate if There are Donations.... Section 6. Disinheritance..... ............,...................... Section 7. Legacies and Devises............................. 497 497 499 500 Chapter 3 522 530 538 547 554 558 573 592 600 607 Intestate Succession.................................... 614 Section 1. General Provisions................................. Representation........................................................ Section 2 Order of Intestate Succession................ 614 618 627 Chapter 4 Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Successions............................ Accretion ................................................................ Capacity to Succeed By Will or By Intestacy............. ........................................... Acceptance and Repudiation.................................. Collation................................................................ Partition and Distribution..................................... 667 676 679 685 Title V. - PRESCRIPTION.......... ........................................ 691 General Provisions................................................... Acquisitive Prescription.................................................. Extinctive Prescription................... ............................... 691 694 697 655 655 BOOK IV. - OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS Title I. - OBLIGATIONS...................................................... General Provisions.......................................................... Nature and Effect of Obligations................................... xiv 700 700 ; 702 Kinds of Obligations.............. ........................................ 718 Pure and Conditional Obligations........................ 718 Obligations with a Period..................................... 729 Alternative and Facultative Obligations............. 738 Joint and Solidary Obligations............................. 742 Divisible and Indivisible Obligations................... 757 759 Obligations with a Penal Clause.......................... Modes of Extinguishing Obligations.................... 764 Payment or Performance.............................. 765 Loss of the Thing D ue.................................. 782 Remission....................................................... 786 Confusion or Merger..................................... 789 Compensation................................................. 790 Novation.......................................................795 Title II. - CONTRACTS................................... .................... 811 General Provisions.......................................................... Essential Requisites of Contracts................................. Consent.................................................................... Object..... ................................................................. Cause....................................................................... Form of Contracts........................................................... Reformation of Instruments.......................................... Defective Contracts......................................................... Rescissible Contracts...................................................... Voidable Contracts.......................................................... Unenforceable Contracts............................................... Void or Inexistent Contracts.............. ........................... 811 829 829 851 854 859 863 868 870 878 887 896 Title III. - NATURAL OBLIGATIONS........................ ....... Title IV. - ESTOPPEL........................................................... Title V. - TRUSTS............................... ................................ Title VI. - SPECIAL CONTRACTS..................................... Sal?s................................................................................. Title VII. - BARTER OR EXCHANGE............................... Title VIII. - LEASE.............. ................................................ 911 913 918 929 929 1002 1003 General Provisions................................................
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