Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry (1).ppt - Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry 1 What is Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the composition of

Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry (1).ppt - Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 “Introduction to Chemistry” 1 What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” – (matter is anything with mass and occupies space), its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Has a definite affect on everyday life taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc. Living and nonliving things are made of matter. 2 Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes – such as burning fuels. C2H5OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + Energy Reactants 3 Products 5 Major Areas of Chemistry Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. 2) Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon 3) Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon 4) Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things 5) Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math! Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact 1) 4 - Page 8 5 What is Chemistry? Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application * Nylon – Figure 1.3, page 9 * Aspirin (C9H8O4) - to relieve pain * Use of TECHNOLOGY (benefit!) 6 Why Study Chemistry? Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world What in the world isn’t Chemistry? Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen A possible career for your future Used to attain a specific goal What did we describe as “pure” and “applied” chemistry? 7 Chemistry Far and Wide Chemists design materials to fit specific needs – velcro (Patented in 1955) on page 12 perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers Two different ways to look at the world: macroscopic and microscopic 8 Chemistry Far and Wide Energy – we constantly have greater demands – We can conserve it; use wisely – We can try to produce more; oil from soybeans to make biodiesel – fossil fuels, solar, batteries (that store energy – rechargeable?), nuclear (don’t forget pollution!) 9 Chemistry Far and Wide Medicine and Biotechnology–Supply materials doctors use to treat patients –vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C H O ) –materials for artery transplants and hipbones –bacteria producing insulin 9 10 8 4 Chemistry Far and Wide Agriculture – Produce the world’s food supply – Use chemistry for better productivity – soil, water, weeds – plant growth hormones – ways to protect crops; insecticides – disease resistant plants 11 The Chemistry Far and Wide Environment – both risks and benefits involved in discoveries – Pollutants need to be 1) identified and 2) prevented – Lead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water? – carbon dioxide, ozone, global warming 12 - Page 16 Let’s examine some information from a graph. 88.2% 440,000 After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment. 13 Chemistry Far and Wide The Universe –Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brought back to Earth –composition of the planets –analyze moon rocks –planet atmospheres –life on other planets? 14 Alchemy – developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C. Alchemy has two sides: – Practical: techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes, etc. – Mystical: concepts like perfection – gold was a perfect metal 15 An Experimental Approach In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter of the sciences “Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge” Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence, and not philosophical debates 16 Lavoisier In the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement – still used today He settled a long-standing debate about burning, which was… –Oxygen was required! 17 The Scientific Method A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting and recording information and facts hypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment 18 Steps in the Scientific Method 1. Observations (uses your senses) a) quantitative involves numbers = 95oF b) qualitative is word description = hot 2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) - possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess 3. Performing experiments (the test) - gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid 19 Scientific Method 20 “controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers: 1) hypothesis is right 2) hypothesis is wrong We gather data and observations by doing the experiment Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle Scientific Method We deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types: 1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change 2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result 21 Outcomes over the long term… 22 Theory (Model) - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved Natural Law (or Scientific Law) - The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results - an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass Law vs. Theory A law summarizes what has happened. A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered. 23 ...
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  • Fall '18
  • Dr. Seaman
  • Chemistry, Applied Chemistry, Biochemistry- Chemistry

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