Chapter 26 Urinary 2016(1).ppt - Chapter 26 Urinary System The Urinary System 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters Urinary Bladder and the Urethra Kidney Functions 1

Chapter 26 Urinary 2016(1).ppt - Chapter 26 Urinary System...

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Chapter 26 Urinary System
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The Urinary System 2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and the Urethra
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Kidney Functions 1. Regulates blood ion composition ( Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) 2. Regulates blood pH , excretes H + and conserve HCO 3 - 3. Regulates blood volume , conserve or eliminate H 2 O 4. Regulates blood pressure , renin increases BP 5. Regulates blood glucose , gluconeogenesis , the synthesis of glucose using amino acid glutamine 6. Maintains blood osmolarity , by regulating H 2 O and ions 7. Produces hormones , (renin and erythropoietin ) 8. Excretes wastes ( urea, bilirubin and creatinine ) *Also, has a role in synthesizing Vitamin D (calcitriol) to control calcium levels, detoxifies free radicals and drugs
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Excretion Separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems respiratory : CO 2 integumentary : water, salts, lactic acid, urea digestive : water, salts, CO 2 , lipids, bile pigments, cholesterol urinary : many metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H + and water
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Anatomy of Kidney Position, weight and size retroperitoneal, level of T12 to L3 about 160 g each about size of a bar of soap (12x6x3 cm) Nephron – functional unit of the kidney Shape lateral surface - convex; medial - concave Connective tissue coverings renal fascia : binds to abdominal wall adipose (perinephric fat)capsule : cushions kidney renal (fibrous)capsule : like visceral pericardium
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Kidney Location Perirenal Fat
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Kidney Anatomy Renal Capsule Hilum Cortex Medulla Columns Pyramids Papilla Minor calyx Major calyx Pelves
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Path of Blood Through Kidney Renal artery segmental arteries interlobar arteries (up renal columns, between lobes) arcuate arteries (over pyramids) cortical radiate (interlobular) arteries (up into cortex) afferent arterioles glomerulus (cluster of capillaries) efferent arterioles (near medulla vasa recta) peritubular capillaries cortical radiate veins arcuate veins interlobar veins renal vein
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Blood Supply Diagram
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Microcirculation of Kidney cortical radiate cortical radiate
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Nephron Glomerular capsule
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Parietal vs Visceral
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Renal Corpuscle
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Filtration Membrane
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Filtration Membrane Kidney disease or in some cases strenuous exercise can allow the larger proteins and even RBCs into urine, known as proteinuria and hematuria , respectively Fenestrated endothelium excludes blood cells Basement membrane negative charge excludes proteins Filtration slits allow particles < 3nm (glucose, fatty acids, electrolytes)
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4 Segments Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) Nephron Loop -Thin segment -Thick segment Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) Collecting Duct -Papillary duct
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Functional Anatomy
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Nitrogenous Wastes Urea CO(NH 2 ) 2 – Proteins amino acids NH 2 removed forms ammonia, liver converts to urea Uric acid nucleic acid catabolism Creatinine creatine phosphate catabolism Renal failure azotemia : BUN (blood urea nitrogen), nitrogenous wastes in blood uremia : toxic effects as wastes accumulate
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Hemodialysis
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  • Spring '15
  • lamb
  • Physiology, Anatomy, Nephron loop, afferent arteriole, urine output

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