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Running head: IRAN: HLS 2301 INTRODUCTION TO TERRORISM1HLS 2301 Introduction to Terrorism Unit II EssayFelicia HudsonColumbia Southern University
IRAN: HLS 2301 INTRODUCTION TO TERRORISM2HLS 2301 Introduction to Terrorism Unit II EssayThe majority of the terrorist attacks carried out in the United States were by individuals whose motivations was based on either right-wing or left-wing extremism. According to Erin Miller (2018), over the past decade the number of terrorist attacks were carried out by right-wingextremist in the U.S. increased from 6% to 35%; while the number of terrorist acts committed byleft-wing extremist decreased from 64% to 12%. Right-wing ideology is based on racial or ethnic supremacy or nationalism, anti-globalism, anti-government, quest for individual liberties and sovereignty, and belief in conspiracy theories involving perceived threats to traditional conservative beliefs (Miller, 2017). Right-wing ideology occurs in three movements in the U.S.: racist/white supremacy- Neo-Nazis; anti-federalists- the Sovereign Citizen Movement; and religious fundamentalists- the Christian Identity Movement (Taylor and Swanson, 2016). Left-wing ideology possesses more of a revolutionary socialist agenda; they believe it is their civic duty to protect the people. Left-wing extremism is characterized by the hatred for capitalism, imperialism, and colonialism; by Marxist political theory on procommunist and socialist beliefs; and support for anarchism, which is a decentralized non-hierarchical sociopolitical system (Miller, 2017). Left-wing extremist groups and be found all over the world. Groups associated with left-wing ideology include: the Sendero Luminoso in Peru; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia; and the Republic of New Africa – U.S. (Taylor and Swanson, 2016). Miller (2018), list the top five perpetrators of terrorism in the U.S. from 2010-2016 as: Jihadi-inspired extremist conducted a total of 21 attacks in the U.S., killing 68 people; Anti-Muslim extremist, 18 attacks, killing three; Anti-government extremist, 11 attacks, killing eight; and white extremist (supremacist) seven attacks, killing 18. Perpetrators of terrorist attacks often
IRAN: HLS 2301 INTRODUCTION TO TERRORISM3identify with one more ideological group (s) or perspective (s); this makes it difficult to classify terrorist attacks by ideology; not everyone in an ideological movement uses violence or terrorist tactics to carry out their ideological beliefs (Miller, 2017). Review of LiteratureState-involved terrorism involves the national government supporting, fostering, and committing acts of terrorism internationally and domestically. The three main components of state-involved terrorism is: State terrorism which involves a ruling government using terrorism against its citizens within the confines of national boarders; state-enabled terrorism which resultsfrom a national government allowing terrorist organizations to operate within its borders on the condition that attacks be carried out on other countries; and state-sponsored terrorism is the result