Oncology.docx - Cancer Staging TNM(or Modified Duke System...

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Cancer Staging - TNM (or Modified Duke System) T = tumor - based on the size of the original (primary) tumor and whether or not it has grown into nearby tissues N = lymph nodes - whether or not the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes M = metastasis - whether or not the cancer has spread to distant areas of the body Developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer CANCER Grading GX : grade cannot be assessed (undetermined grade) G1 : well differentiated (localized with tumor limited to the tissue of origin) G2 : moderately differentiated (limited spread) G3 : poorly differentiated (extensive local and regional spreading) G4 : undifferentiated (distant metastasis) Seven Warning Signs of Cancer - C.A.U.T.I.O.N C = Change in bowel or bladder habits A = A sore that does not heal U = Unusual bleeding or discharge from any part of the body T = Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere I = Indigestion or difficulty swallowing O = Obvious change in a wart or mole N = Nagging cough or hoarseness National Cancer Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health CANCER interventions: C = Comfort A = Altered body image N = Nutrition C = Chemotherapy
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Christopher Reinemann
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