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12 March 2008 - 12 March 2008 12 March 2008 Characteristics...

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12 March 2008 12/03/2008 14:25:00 12 March 2008 Characteristics of normal phonological development Gradual process the child needs to learn speech sounds:  ( stops : p,b,t,d,k,g;   nasals :  m,n, “ng”;   glides :  w, “y”;  fricatives :  h,f,v,”th” (think), “th”  (the), “s”, “z”, “sh”, “zh”;   affricates :  “ch”, “j”;  liquids :  l,r o phonological rules:  (includes learning which sounds are meaningful  [contrastive] in the language, which sounds can occur in sequence and  which cannot, which sounds are permissible in which positions (initial,  medial, final) prosody:  (includes intonation, stress patterns in multisyllabic  words, and sentence stress Vowels are learned early Diphthongs sound are extremely sensitive to dialect, you can assume these  sounds are learned very early in each dialect Vowels, Nasals, Stops early W,l,r somewhere in the middle Fricative sounds generally learned last or towards the end 
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- - - Mental dictionary (lexicon) of words In this particular model . . . The left side of model is perception, that has to do with skills having to do with  auditory capabilities and understanding speech The right side is production the ability to produce speech sound Both of these are connected through mental dictionary (lexicon) of words Mental dictionary – there are representations of word that consist of  sequences of phonemes of a given word o Example there would be representations in your head for the word  BADGERS, that is contained in mental dictionary and related to both  sides (1) Auditory Input, left side A child has to have auditory sensitivity o Basic ability to hear anything o Is the child hearing normal or does the child have a hearing impairment  that affects the ability to understand speech sounds. (2) Phonetic Decoding A child could have perfectly normal hearing for nonspeech sounds, but still  have specific difficulty detecting the difference between two sonds that are  very close together o Example kid may have normal hearing but have troubles  understanding the difference between the stop constanants of b and p. o Phonetic Decoding – sensing the difference between phonemes (3) Linguistic Perception We assume that the basic sensitivity and basic hearing is ok, and childs  ability to detect suttle differences between sounds is ok, but the child cannot  hear the sounds as parts of words.  They have trouble identifying that a given  phoneme is a part of a word.  We see kids in the clinic with speech sound 
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