Era Review 1450-1750 Europe Italian Renaissance- Cultural and Political movement in Western Europe; began in Italy c. 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; featured a literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages Florence- Center of artistic developments with the rise of patron families Humanism- Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages Machiavelli- Author of the Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian renaissance Gutenberg- Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets Protestant Reformation- General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief Martin Luther-German monk; initiated Protestant reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primary of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church Calvinism/John Calvin-French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America Zwingli-(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war. Anglican Church-Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death Act of Supremacy-Henry VIII called on the people to take an oath to recognize the annulment/divorce and accept Henry, NOT the Pope, as the official head of the English Church. (Parliament's role was instrumental) Catholic Reformation- Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs. Jesuits- A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia, founded by Ignatius of Loyola Council of trent- Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Edict of Nantes- 1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants