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Astronomy Midterm 1 Study Guide.docx - Chapter 1 o Solar...

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Chapter 1oSolar AddressEarth, Solar System (Planets orbiting one star), MilkyWay Galaxy, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, UniverseoStar: A large, glowing ball of gas that generates heat and light throughnuclear fusionoPlanet: a body (solid or gases), which orbits a star and shines byreflected light.Orbits a star in a solar system and ‘belongs’ to that staroMoon: A body that orbits a planet (also technically orbits sun)oAsteroid:Relatively small and rocky object which orbits a star (NOT aplanet)oComet:A relatively small and icy object which orbits a starIf gets too close to the sun it will start to meltLeaves a tail(named after individuals who find it)oSolar System:A star and all the material which orbits it, includingplanets and moons (some have 2, most have 1 star)oConstellation:Not real. Pictures imagined in the sky (in reality thestars are far away and unrelated to each other)oNebula: An interstellar cloud of gas and dustGigantic and floats through universeStar/stellar nurserywhere 1000s of stars are born and illuminate gas and dustoGalaxy:A great island of stars in space, all held together by gravityand orbiting a common centerCosmic recyclingStars are made of old parts of dead starsBigger galaxies have smaller satellite galaxies that orbitthemoUniverse:The sum total of all matter and energyEverything within and between all galaxies14 Billion years oldoLaws of physics and light can be used todetermine age and past history of the universeoAtom:Smallest ‘building blocks’ of all matterThe first and simplest atoms were created during the big bangMore complex atoms/elements are created by nuclear fusion instars and expelled into space when a star dies (to form otherstars and planets)oEverything we know about the universe comes from the light weobserve (light travels at a finite speed)8 light years = light that took 8 years to get hereLight year is a measurement of distancehow far lighttravels in 1 yearoFurther out we look into the universe, the fartherback in time we see (time traveling)1
oScale of the UniverseSun is the size of a grapefruit (DC)Nearest star would be inSan Francisco (Mostly empty space)1 AU:Distance from the Earth to the Sun (8 light minutes,149,600,000 km)Solar system orbits the milky way every 219 Million years(Milky way diameter is 10^5 Light years)Universe is 14 billion light years and expanding as light comesto usCosmic Calendar: Entire age of the universe wascontained in one calendar year.Humans would beabout 3 hours on December 31 and Modern humanswould be about 1 minuteoSpace Ship EarthEarth Rotates about its axis once a dayEarth Orbits the Sun Once a Year (23.5 degree tilt responsiblefor the seasons) – 100,000 km/hrSun moves relative to the other stars in the local starneighborhoodOur sun and the local star neighborhood orbit the center of themilky way

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Term
Spring
Professor
WEINTRAUB

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