1 MY PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER My Personality Theory Paper Samantha Becicka American Public University October 23 rd, 2018
2 MY PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER I. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik Erickson was one of the most influential psychoanalysts in the 20 th century. Erikson was born in 1902 in Germany and studied psychology at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1936 Erikson joined Yale University staff in their psychiatry department. He first published his theory of psychoanalytic development in his book Childhood and Society in 1950. Erikson’s theory was influenced by Freud's psychosexual development theory. However, unlike Freud Erikson believed that personality is not exclusively a result of childhood experiences, but rather that it is a lifelong developmental process (Friedman, H. S. & Schustack, M. W., 2012). Erikson theorized that people are motivated by a desire to achieve competency in various areas of our lives. Erikson’s theory consists of eight stages consisting of a different task or crisis that must be resolved to develop a healthy personality and sense of competency. The first stage of Erikson’s theory is Trust vs. Mistrust and occurs in the first year of life. During the first year of life a child relies on their parent of caregiver to fulfill their basic survival needs. When a caregiver is consistently attentive and sensitive to the child’s basic needs the child is able to develop a sense of trust. A child raised in an attentive environment see the world as safe and predictable. In contrast, a child raised by a caregiver who is neglectful or unable to consistently meet the child’s basic needs will develop mistrust. They may also develop anxiety, fear, and view the world a scary and unpredictable. From ages one to three a child experiences the crisis of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. During this stage a child is exploring the world around them through play. The crisis the toddler must resolve is to establish their independence. They begin to discover how to control their own bodies, actions, and emotion. They learn to walk on their own and begin to toilet train. A child
3 MY PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER will begin to try to make their own choices about clothes, foods, and play. When this independence is denied the child will begin to doubt their own capabilities which may lead to self esteem issues. The third stage in Erikson theory is Initiative vs. Guilt. This stage occurs when they begin school typically from ages three to six. Children of this age are able assert control in their daily lives in social activities. To resolve the crisis of initiative versus guilt a child must learn to make plans and achieve various goals during their social interactions. This action bestows leadership, ambition, pride, and responsibility in the child. The successfully complete this stage a caregiver should give the child a safe place to explore and make choices independently. If a caregiver is
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- Developmental Psychology, stage, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Erik Erikson