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Unformatted text preview: • Network theory • Interdisciplinary applications • Online networks • Corporate networks • Lobbying networks • Deviant networks • Measuring devices • Key Methodologies • Software applications. John Scott is Professor in Sociology at Plymouth University. Peter J. Carrington is Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies at the University of Waterloo. The SAGE Handbook of The result is a peerless resource for teachers and students which offers a critical survey of the field’s origins, basic issues and major debates. The Handbook provides a one-stop guide that will be used by readers for decades to come. Social Network Analysis This sparkling Handbook offers an unrivalled resource for those engaged in the cutting edge field of social network analysis. Systematically, it introduces readers to the key concepts, substantive topics, central methods and prime debates. Among the specific areas covered are: Edited by ‘There is something for everyone in The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Whether you are brand new to the field or a seasoned expert, interested in the theoretical underpinnings of network analysis or the methodological nuts and bolts associated with analyzing the evolution of an affiliation network over time, this book is a must have.’ Michael Schwartz, Chair, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook University, USA Scott and Carrington ‘An outstanding volume that brings together contributions from the world’s leading experts on social network analysis. Methods, theory and substantive applications are presented in a clear exposition making this the most comprehensive text available in this rapidly expanding and changing field. For anyone with any interest in social networks this is quite simply a “must have” book.’ Martin Everett, Professor of Social Network Analysis, Manchester University, UK The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis Edited by Scott and John Peter J. Carrington The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis 5605-Scott-FM.indd i 4/15/2011 11:58:39 AM ‘An outstanding volume that brings together contributions from the world’s leading experts on social network analysis. Methods, theory and substantive applications are presented in a clear exposition making this the most comprehensive text available in this rapidly expanding and changing field. For anyone with any interest in social networks this is quite simply a “must have” book.’ Martin Everett, Professor of Social Network Analysis, Manchester University, UK ‘There is something for everyone in The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Whether you are brand new to the field or a seasoned expert, interested in the theoretical underpinnings of network analysis or the methodological nuts and bolts associated with analyzing the evolution of an affiliation network over time, this book is a must have.’ Michael Schwartz, Chair, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook University, USA ‘Over the past decades Social Network Analysis has broadened its scope from anthropology and sociology to all behavioral and social sciences, from social and organizational psychology to management science and economics. This Handbook provides well-founded introductions and overviews for a broad range of social network studies, approaches, and methodology. It is a must for everybody who is interested in the way social network relations evolve, are structured and affect outcomes in any part of our life and society.’ Frans N. Stokman, Professor of Social Science Research Methodology, ICS, University of Groningen, The Netherlands 5605-Scott-FM.indd ii 4/15/2011 11:58:40 AM The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis Edited by John Scott and Peter J. Carrington 5605-Scott-FM.indd iii 4/15/2011 11:58:40 AM Chapter 1/Introduction © Peter J. Carrington & John Scott 2011 Chapter 2 © Alexandra Marin & Barry Wellman 2011 Chapter 3 © Linton C. Freeman 2011 Chapter 4 © Stephen P. Borgatti & Virginie Lopez-Kidwell 2011 Chapter 5 © John Scott 2011 Chapter 6 © Sanjeev Goyal 2011 Chapter 7 © Ann Mische 2011 Chapter 8 © Vincent Chua, Julia Madej & Barry Wellman 2011 Chapter 9 © Lijun Song, Joonmo Son & Nan Lin 2011 Chapter 10 © Douglas R. White 2011 Chapter 11 © Katherine Faust 2011 Chapter 12 © Anatoliy Gruzd & Caroline Haythornthwaite 2011 Chapter 13 © William K. Carroll & J. P. Sapinski 2011 Chapter 14 © Matthew Bond & Nicholas Harrigan 2011 Chapter 15 © David Knoke 2011 Chapter 16 © Mario Diani 2011 Chapter 17 © Peter J. Carrington 2011 Chapter 18 © Renée C. van der Hulst 2011 Chapter 19 © Howard D. White 2011 Chapter 20 © Paul DiMaggio 2011 Chapter 21 © Ron Johnston & Charles Pattie 2011 Chapter 22 © Edward L. Kick, Laura A. McKinney, Steve McDonald & Andrew Jorgenson 2011 Chapter 23 © Robert A. Hanneman & Mark Riddle 2011 Chapter 24 © Robert A. Hanneman & Mark Riddle 2011 Chapter 25 © Peter V. Marsden 2011 Chapter 26 © Ove Frank 2011 Chapter 27 © Betina Hollstein 2011 Chapter 28 © Stephen P. Borgatti & Daniel S. Halgin 2011 Chapter 29 © Anuška Ferligoj, Patrick Doreian & Vladimir Batagelj 2011 Chapter 30 © Philippa Pattison 2011 Chapter 31 © Marijtje A.J. van Duijn & Mark Huisman 2011 Chapter 32 © Garry Robins 2011 Chapter 33 © Tom A.B. Snijders 2011 Chapter 34 © Weihua (Edward) An 2011 Chapter 35 © Klaus Hamberger, Michael Houseman & Douglas R. White 2011 Chapter 36 © Vladimir Batagelj 2011 Chapter 37 © Lothar Krempel 2011 Chapter 38 © Mark Huisman & Marijtje A.J. van Duijn 2011 First published 2011 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, Post Bag 7 New Delhi 110 044 SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Library of Congress Control Number 2010935654 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-84787-395-8 Typeset by by Glyph International, Bangalore, India Printed in Great Britain by MPG Books Group, Bodmin, Cornwall Printed on paper from sustainable resources 5605-Scott-FM.indd iv 4/15/2011 11:58:40 AM Contents Notes on Contributors Acknowledgements 1 Introduction Peter J. Carrington and John Scott SECTION I GENERAL ISSUES 2 Social Network Analysis: An Introduction Alexandra Marin and Barry Wellman 3 The Development of Social Network Analysis – with an Emphasis on Recent Events Linton C. Freeman ix xvii 1 9 11 26 4 Network Theory Stephen P. Borgatti and Virginie Lopez-Kidwell 40 5 Social Physics and Social Networks John Scott 55 6 Social Networks in Economics Sanjeev Goyal 67 7 Relational Sociology, Culture, and Agency Ann Mische 80 SECTION II SUBSTANTIVE TOPICS 99 8 Personal Communities: The World According to Me Vincent Chua, Julia Madej, and Barry Wellman 101 9 Social Support Lijun Song, Joonmo Son, and Nan Lin 116 10 Kinship, Class, and Community Douglas R. White 129 5605-Scott-FM.indd v 4/15/2011 11:58:40 AM vi CONTENTS 11 Animal Social Networks Katherine Faust 148 12 Networking Online: Cybercommunities Anatoliy Gruzd and Caroline Haythornthwaite 167 13 Corporate Elites and Intercorporate Networks William K. Carroll and J.P. Sapinski 180 14 Political Dimensions of Corporate Connections Matthew Bond and Nicholas Harrigan 196 15 Policy Networks David Knoke 210 16 Social Movements and Collective Action Mario Diani 223 17 Crime and Social Network Analysis Peter J. Carrington 236 18 Terrorist Networks: The Threat of Connectivity Renée C. van der Hulst 256 19 Scientific and Scholarly Networks Howard D. White 271 20 Cultural Networks Paul DiMaggio 286 21 Social Networks, Geography and Neighbourhood Effects Ron Johnston and Charles Pattie 301 22 A Multiple-Network Analysis of the World System of Nations, 1995–1999 Edward L. Kick, Laura A. McKinney, Steve McDonald, and Andrew Jorgenson 311 SECTION III CONCEPTS AND METHODS 329 23 A Brief Introduction to Analyzing Social Network Data Robert A. Hanneman and Mark Riddle 331 24 Concepts and Measures for Basic Network Analysis Robert A. Hanneman and Mark Riddle 340 25 Survey Methods for Network Data Peter V. Marsden 370 5605-Scott-FM.indd vi 4/15/2011 11:58:41 AM CONTENTS vii 26 Survey Sampling in Networks Ove Frank 389 27 Qualitative Approaches Betina Hollstein 404 28 Analyzing Affiliation Networks Stephen P. Borgatti and Daniel S. Halgin 417 29 Positions and Roles Anuška Ferligoj, Patrick Doreian, and Vladimir Batagelj 434 30 Relation Algebras and Social Networks Philippa Pattison 447 31 Statistical Models for Ties and Actors Marijtje A.J. van Duijn and Mark Huisman 459 32 Exponential Random Graph Models for Social Networks Garry Robins 484 33 Network Dynamics Tom A.B. Snijders 501 34 Models and Methods to Identify Peer Effects Weihua (Edward) An 514 35 Kinship Network Analysis Klaus Hamberger, Michael Houseman, and Douglas R. White 533 36 Large-Scale Network Analysis Vladimir Batagelj 550 37 Network Visualization Lothar Krempel 558 38 A Reader’s Guide to SNA Software Mark Huisman and Marijtje A.J. van Duijn 578 Index 601 5605-Scott-FM.indd vii 4/15/2011 11:58:41 AM 5605-Scott-FM.indd viii 4/15/2011 11:58:41 AM Notes on Contributors Weihua (Edward) An is a PhD candidate in Sociology, doctoral fellow in the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy at the Kennedy School of Government and a graduate associate in the Institute for Quantitative Social Science and the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University. He earned a master’s degree in Statistics from Harvard (in 2009) and has strong interests in quantitative methods, especially social network analysis, causal inference, and Bayesian statistics. His general substantive interests span a variety of areas, including sociology of health, inequality and social policy and organizations. Currently, he focuses on formal and statistical analysis of peer effects on health and social behaviours, and social-network-based policy interventions. He is working on several projects, including ‘Bayesian Propensity Score Estimators: Incorporating Uncertainties in Propensity Score into Causal Inference’ (forthcoming in Sociological Methodology), ‘Instrument Variable Estimates of Peer Effects on Health Behaviors’, ‘Directionality of Social Ties and the Edge-Reversal Test of Peer Effects’ and ‘Peer Effects on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking and Social-Network-Based Interventions: Experimental Evidence from China’. Vladimir Batagelj is Professor of Discrete and Computational Mathematics at the University of Ljubljana. His main research interests are in graph theory, algorithms on graphs and networks, combinatorial optimization, data analysis and applications of information technology in education. With A. Mrvar, he has developed Pajek, , a program for analysis and visualization of large networks. He is author and coauthor of several papers published in scientific journals (CACM, Psychometrika, Journal of Classification, Social Networks, Discrete Mathematics, Algorithmica, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, etc.) and in proceedings of international conferences. Recently he coauthored two books: Generalized Blockmodeling (with P. Doreian and A. Ferligoj) and Exploratory Network Analysis with Pajek (with W. de Nooy and A. Mrvar). These books were published in 2005 by Cambridge University Press. The book Generalized Blockmodeling was awarded a Harrison White Outstanding Book Award by the Mathematical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association in 2007. Matthew Bond is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Social and Policy Studies, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, London South Bank University. His main research interests are the quantitative analysis of corporate political behaviour, corporate charity and the British Establishment. Stephen P. Borgatti is the Paul Chellgren Chair of Management at the University of Kentucky. His research interests include social network theory and methodology, knowledge management and career trajectories. He is a member of the LINKS Center for Social Network Analysis in Management, and has recently coauthored a piece on network theory in Science with his LINKS Center colleagues. Peter J. Carrington is Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies at the University of Waterloo and editor of Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. His current research, the Canadian Criminal Careers and Criminal Networks Study, combines his long-standing interests in social network analysis and in crime and delinquency. Other interests include police discretion and the impact of the Canadian 5605-Scott-FM.indd ix 4/15/2011 11:58:41 AM x NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS Youth Criminal Justice Act. His recent articles have appeared in Criminology, Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and Criminal Justice Policy Review. With John Scott and Stanley Wasserman, he coedited Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 2005), which won the 2006 Harrison White Outstanding Book Award, given by the Mathematical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. William K. Carroll is a member of the Sociology Department at the University of Victoria since 1981, and a founding participant in the Graduate Program in Cultural, Social and Political Thought. He currently directs UVic’s Interdisciplinary Minor/Diploma Program in Social Justice Studies. His research interests are in the areas of social movements and social change, the political economy of corporate capitalism and critical social theory and method. His recent books include The Making of a Transnational Capitalist Class (Zed Books, 2010) and Corporate Power in a Globalizing World (Oxford University Press, revised edition, 2010). Vincent Chua obtained his PhD in Sociology at the University of Toronto. In his dissertation, he examined the sources of several forms of social capital in Singapore and the effects of social capital on occupational success. He has won several academic awards for his dissertation research: the Daniel Grafton Hill Prize, the Ellie Yolles Ontario Graduate Scholarship in Sociology and the Norman Bell Award. Mario Diani is ICREA Research Professor in the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. He has worked extensively on social network approaches to social movements and collective action. His publications include Social Movements (with Donatella della Porta, Blackwell, 1999/2006), Social Movements and Networks (coedited with Doug McAdam, Oxford University Press, 2003), and articles in leading journals such as American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Networks and Theory and Society. Paul DiMaggio is A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs and the Director of the Center for the Study of Social Organization at Princeton University. His current projects include the development and application of network methods to detect schematic heterogeneity in attitude data and a study of network effects on social inequality. He is coeditor (with Patricia Fernandez-Kelly) of Art in the Lives of Immigrant Communities in the U.S. (Rutgers University Press, 2010). Patrick Doreian is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Statistics at the University of Pittsburgh and a research faculty member of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana. He ‘retired’ in order to have more time for research and writing. He currently coedits Social Networks with Tom Snijders and previously edited The Journal of Mathematical Sociology for 23 years. His research interests include social network analysis, network evolution, and macro social change. Katherine Faust is Professor of Sociology and member of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. She is coauthor (with Stanley Wasserman) of the book Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications (Cambridge University Press) and of numerous articles about social networks and network methodology. Her current research focuses on comparing network patterns across different forms of social relations and animal species; development of methodology for complex network structures, including constraints and local network properties; and understanding relationships between social networks and demographic processes. Anuška Ferligoj is Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences at University of Ljubljana, head of the graduate program on Statistics at the University of Ljubljana and head of the Center of Methodology and Informatics at the Institute of Social Sciences. She has been the editor of the journal Advances in Methodology and Statistics (Metodoloski zvezki) since 2004 and is a member of the editorial boards of 5605-Scott-FM.indd x 4/15/2011 11:58:41 AM NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS xi the Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Journal of Classification, Social Networks, Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, Methodology, Structure and Dynamics: eJournal of Anthropology and Related Sciences, BMS and Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. She was a Fulbright scholar in 1990 to 1991 and a visiting professor at the University of Pittsburgh in 1996 and at the University of Vienna in 2009 to 2010. She was awarded the title of Ambassador of Science of the Republic of Slovenia in 1997 and was given the Simmel Award in 2007 by the International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA). In 2010 she received Doctor et Professor Honoris Causa at Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE) in Budapest. She is an elected member of the European Academy of Sociology and the International Statistical Institute. Her interests include multivariate analysis (constrained and multicriteria clustering), social networks (measurement quality and blockmodeling), and survey methodology (reliability and validity of measurement). She is the coauthor of the monograph Generalized Blockmodeling (Cambridge University Press, 2005), which obtained the Harrison White Outstanding Book Award in 2007, given by the Mathematical Sociology Section at the American Sociological Association. Ove Frank, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Statistics at Stockholm University. From 1971 he held professorships in statistics at the universities of Uppsala, Lund and Stockholm. He also had visiting positions at the University of California–Riverside and Stanford University. He is one of the pioneers of statistical graph theory and he contributed to the development of statistical sampling theory for social networks. He developed probabilistic network models and statistical methods for sampling and estimation in networks. He also made contributions to various problems in combinatorics and information theory. Among his recent publications are contributions to Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (Springer, 2009), International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science (Springer, 2010) and Official Statistics: Methodology and Applications in Honour of Daniel Thorburn (Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, 2010). Linton C. Freeman is Research Professor in the Department of Sociology and member of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. He began working in social network analysis in 1958 when he directed a structural study of community decision making in Syracuse, New York. In 1978 he founded the journal Social Networ...
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