A monk named Gregor Mendel studied the reproduction and genetic inheritances of pea plants in an abbey garden. He documented his theories on genotypes, and organism's genetic make-up, and phenotypes, an organism's physical traits. Mendel discovered the basic principals of heredity by trial and error breeding of garden pea plants. This initially triggered the development by future scientists to discover chromosome behavior and organism's genetic make-up. Pea plants were a wise choice for Mendel's experiments. By using pea plants he could manually alter their breeding pattern affecting their seed and flower color, stem length, pod shape and seed shape. This is possible because pea plants have both male and female reproductive organs, the stamen, which produces pollen, and the carpel, which produces the egg. Mendel started all of his experiments by using two homozygous true-bred "parent" plants. A true-breeding plant self pollinates and their offspring are always of the same variety. When a true-breeding green seeded pea plant and a
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