Corporal punishment.docx

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Unformatted text preview: Johnson1 Riley Johnson Ms. Haden Bell EN102-030 3 March 2017 Corporal Punishment: Abuse or Discipline? In Marvel’s Age of Ultron, Black Widow is portrayed as a strong woman who can take care of herself. Though through flashbacks, the audience learns that Black Widow was a victim of child abuse in her younger years. The issue of child abuse and what is considered abusive is one still discussed in our society today. More specifically, if corporal punishment, also referred to as spanking or paddling, is an appropriate way to discipline kids or is an act of violence and what literature has to say about it. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) defines corporal punishment as, “striking a child with an open hand on the buttocks or extremities with the intention of modifying behavior without causing physical injury.” The Oxford English Dictionary defines it as “punishment inflicted on the body.” The Merriam-Webster dictionary describes it as, “punishment that involves hitting someone: physical punishment.” The act of corporal punishment is universally agreed upon. What differs from individual or culture is if spanking is a justifiable, fair punishment for a child. Gale’s Opposing Viewpoints is an online database that can be described as a resource that contains, “informed, differing views present each side of an issue and help students develop information literacy, critical thinking skills, and the confidence to draw their own valid conclusions” (solutions.cengage). When Spanking is searched there is a list of different sources, divided into folders, in which to choose from. These folders include: Viewpoints, Academic Johnson2 Journals, Statistics, Primary Sources, Audio pieces, News Articles, images, Reference, Magazines, and Websites. In each folder, there is a variety of content that agrees/disagrees that spanking is an acceptable, disciplinary punishment. When spanking is searched it first immediately shows you corporal punishment as a suggested topic page. When you click it, a brief overview of corporal punishment appears that defines the term and gives you a little background on the topic: The top hit under the “Viewpoints” folder is an Article by Nadine Block. The title of her article is, “Disciplinary Spanking Should be Banned.” Just by the title, it is obvious where Black stands on the issue. In this article, she is arguing that “Corporal punishment such as spanking can lead to child abuse and should therefore be banned.” And “Support for a ban on spanking comes from research showing that children who are spanked display aggressive and other antisocial behaviors.” Block begins her argument by explaining why some people may be for spanking, and this reason is religion. She sites multiple bible verses and explains how people interpret them to justify corporal punishment. She then argues the counterpoint of those to justify her belief that the verses are being taken out of context and ultimately are wrong. Block then provides research to back up her argument in forms of studies. These studies have shown that children who are frequently spanked for bad behavior are, “are more likely to display antisocial behaviors.”, “children who are regularly spanked are more likely to continue the practice on the next generation and to show less remorse for wrongdoing as adults.”, and “can have deleterious effects in adult life, including a greater likelihood of depression and other psychological problems.” Block’s choice of studies are all similar in the way she chooses to share how spanking effects a child in their later years and adulthood. This article might appeal more to a Johnson3 parent looking to draw a conclusion on spanking rather than a state government looking to ban the act. Under the magazine folder, a piece from Education week is shown as the top hit. This article explains U.S. Secretary of Education John B. King Jr.’s actions in attempting to end corporal punishment in schools. The article says, “In his letter to governors and chief state school officers Nov. 22, King said that the corporal punishment practiced in some states' schools could also be classified as criminal assault or battery under separate laws in those same states. Corporal punishment is often used disproportionately on certain groups of students, such as students of color, King said. And he argued that the practice undermines efforts to teach students nonviolent methods of resolving conflicts and negatively affects their long-term behavior and academic outcomes.” This statement summarizes the overall jest of the article. It mainly consists of him explaining his own opinions on the matter without much and lacks facts and/or research. Though this article may appeal more to people looking to ban spanking in schools, there is not much material for an individual to draw a conclusion on. In the News section, there is a brief article from the Africa News Service titled, “Teachers want Corporal Punishment Back.” This article is one of the few sources in the whole database that suggest it might agree with the act of this discipline, and though the full article is not accessible through Opposing Viewpoints, they give you a link to where to full article can be found. It says that teachers and parents in Windhoek, Namibia (South Africa) feel that students can only be properly managed and called to order when such punishment is introduced once again.” This opinion differs from that of John B. King Jr.’s that was stated in the previous Johnson4 paragraph. This goes to show the belief of Corporal punishment differs from individual and culture. Under the statistics folder, there is a more factual based source. This graph by the Pew Research Center shows the statistics of parents, racial, and education groups that use spanking as a form of discipline in the United states. This chart shows the responses of each group. It is divided into three categories: Often/sometimes spanks (shown in red), Rarely spanks (shown in blue), and never spanks (shown in yellow). It shows the number percentage of each response but notes that the chart does not include those who responded that their child was too young/ old to spank or refused to answer entirely. Under the chart are a list of percentages of how parents choose to discipline their kids instead of using spanking as the primary form of discipline. This list does not seem to relate to the overall title of the statistic, “Use of Spanking as a Form of Discipline in the United States, by Parents’ Racial and Education Group.”, but to a parent who is trying to decide the best way to discipline their child, this would probably be helpful. Johnson5 Gale’s Opposing Viewpoints is a database that provides a variety of different sources on controversial topics in society. Among these topics corporal punishment or spanking is one that is highly discussed and one that people have very different opinions on. The database gives a plethora of information both supporting and disagreeing with this form of discipline. It gives information beneficiary to parents trying to decide which form of punishment they should use on their child and discussed where corporal punishment stands in schools today. Though this site does a good job providing a variety of sources, the database is not accessible to those without bought subscription, therefore it may not be easy for the public to get hold of this information. Johnson6 Work Cited Block, Nadine. "Disciplinary Spanking Should Be Banned." Child Abuse, edited by Louise I. Gerdes, Greenhaven Press, 2004. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010115254/OVIC? u=tusc49521&xid=ca547e4b. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Originally published as "Abandon the Rod and Save the Child," Humanist, vol. 60, Mar. 2000, pp. 5-12. “Gale Opposing Viewpoints in context.” Soltuions.cengage.N.p., n.d. "Teachers Want Corporal Punishment Back." Africa News Service, 22 Nov. 2016. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A470980271/OVIC? u=tusc49521&xid=e18686fb. Accessed 7 Mar. 2017. Ujifusa, Andrew. "King Calls for End to Corporal Punishment in Schools." Education Week, 30 Nov. 2016, p. 21. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A473639811/OVIC?u=tusc49521&xid=69672f9b. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. "Use of Spanking as a Form of Discipline in the United States, by Parents’ Racial and Education Group." Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Gale, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/ENXTOS981944285/OVIC? u=tusc49521&xid=b0d98f85. Accessed 7 Mar. 2017. ...
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