Exam 2 review.docx - Chapter 4 What is social perception o The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people What are

Exam 2 review.docx - Chapter 4 What is social perception o...

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Chapter 4-What is social perception? oThe study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people -What are nonverbal communication? What functions do they serve?oHow people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without wordsoEncode – express or emit nonverbal behavioroDecode – interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior -How do evolution theories explain emotions (e.g., fear, disgust)?oFear – enhanced perception ---facial and eye movements decrease sensory input oDisgust – decreased perception ---facial and eye movements decrease sensory input -What are the six universal emotions?oAnger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust and sadness -Does inborn blindness have any influence on expressing universal emotions? Why?oIt does not, according to the study, the blind athletes and the seeing athletes made the same expressions of emotions during the games-Why is decoding facial expression sometimes difficult?oAffect blends – facial expressions in which one part of the face registers one emotionwhile another part of the face registers a different emotion -How does culture affect facial expression? What are culturally-specified display rules (e.g., use of space, eye contact)?oDisplay rules – dictate what kinds of emotional expressions people are supposed to show America – men discouraged from emotional displays like crying; but women are allowed Japan – women discourage from displaying uninhibited smile oEye contact/gaze America – suspicious when people do not “look them in the eye”Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Thailand – direct eye contact considered disrespectful oPersonal space America – like bubble of personal space Middle East, South America, Southern Europe – stand close to each other andtouch frequently -How is first impression formed? How does baby face influence first impression?oFormed in less than 100 milliseconds oBaby face Features that are reminiscent of those small children Tend to be perceived as having childlike traits – naïve, warm and submissive -What is thin-slicing?oDrawing meaningful conclusions about another person’s personality or skills based on an extremely brief sample of behavior -What is primacy effect? oWhen it comes to forming impressions, the first traits we perceive in others influence how we view information that we learn about them later -What is belief perseverance?oThe tendency to stick with an initial judgement even in the face of new information that should prompt us to reconsider
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-How does attribution theory explain our emotions? What are internal attribution and external attribution?oWhen deciding about causes of behavior, we can make one of two attributions:Internal, dispositional attribution – attitude, character, personality External, situational attribution – something about the situation and most people would respond the same way in that situation-How does attribution relate to martial satisfaction?oHappy marriage
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