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Unformatted text preview: University of North Georgia Nighthawks Open Institutional Repository UNG Press Books University of North Georgia Press 8-19-2013 History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 Catherine Locks Sarah Mergel Pamela Roseman Tamara Spike Follow this and additional works at: Part of the United States History Commons Recommended Citation Locks, Catherine; Mergel, Sarah; Roseman, Pamela; and Spike, Tamara, "History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877" (2013). UNG Press Books. Book 1. This Book is brought to you for free and open access by the University of North Georgia Press at Nighthawks Open Institutional Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in UNG Press Books by an authorized administrator of Nighthawks Open Institutional Repository. History in the Making A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 Edition 1, Version 3 Release Date: August 19, 2013 Written By: Catherine Locks Sarah Mergel, PhD Pamela Roseman, PhD Tamara Spike, PhD Project Editor: Marie Lasseter, EdD “Creating A More Educated Georgia” 270 Washington Street, S.W. Atlanta, GA 30334 U.S.A. “Local is Global” University of North Georgia Dahlonega, GA 30598 U.S.A. History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 is licensed by The University System of Georgia under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This license allows you to remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you credit this original source for the creation and license the new creation under identical terms. If you reuse this content elsewhere, in order to comply with the attribution requirements of the license please attribute the original source to the University System of Georgia. Image Disclaimer: All images and figures in this book are believed to be (after a reasonable investigation) either public domain or carry a compatible Creative Commons license. If you are the copyright owner of images in this book and you have not authorized the use of your work under these terms, please contact the University Press of North Georgia at [email protected] to have the content removed. ISBN: 978-0-9882237-3-8 Produced by: The University System of Georgia Published by: The University Press of North Georgia Dahlonega, Georgia [email protected] We invite you to contact the University Press of North Georgia directly with any feedback or comments regarding this book. Instructional Design: Marie Lasseter Cover Design: Lacey Pyle Layout and Format Design: Lacey Pyle, Marie Lasseter, and April Loebick © 2013 The University System of Georgia History in the Making AcknowledgeMentS The University System of Georgia would like to acknowledge the special efforts put forth by certain individuals, and their institutions, who worked on making this book possible. We extend a special thanks to Dr. Sarah Mergel, Dalton State College; Dr. Tamara Spike, University of North Georgia; Dr. Pamela Roseman, Georgia Perimeter College; and Ms. Catherine Locks, Fort Valley State University. This book would not have been possible without the support of these institutions and the dedication and generosity of these faculty authors. Thanks to Dr. Marie Lasseter and Dr. Mike Rogers, from the University System of Georgia Academic Affairs office, who have long advocated for the use of open educational resources and open textbooks as one way to help ease the high cost of a college education for students and their families. Without their guidance and encouragement this book would not have materialized. Dr. Lasseter provided overall oversight and guidance for this project and provided years of experience of working with collaborative groups to develop and design educational materials. Her knowledge and experience in developing and using open educational resources was a valuable resource to the team. We gratefully acknowledge the University Press of North Georgia, in particular Dr. Bonnie Robinson and Ms. April Loebick, for their role in guiding the publication process. Under Dr. Robinson’s direction they worked tirelessly with the authors during all phases of the work, ensuring that this textbook achieves the high quality and scholarly standards our faculty and students expect. We wish to extend a special thanks to eCore Administrative Services, especially Ms. Christy Talley Smith, for providing faculty authors, guidance, and support throughout the development process. The guidance and support provided by all the members who contributed to this work was essential for the success of the project. Each of these individuals has engaged in open philanthropy, an act of generosity and a desire to contribute to, and encourage, the success of students everywhere. This is what educators do. As Thomas Jefferson said, “He who receives ideas from me receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.” This is an open textbook, freely available for anyone to access, reuse, adapt, and redistribute. It is a dynamic entity that will continue to be updated and edited to suit the needs and the instructional goals of the users. We are grateful for the efforts of those who will continue this process. Page | i History in the Making AUtHor Biogr APHieS catherine locks: Catherine Locks is an instructor and also an instructional technologist/designer from Richmond, Virginia. She received her BS in history from Longwood University(1986) and her MA in history(2000) and MEd in instructional technology from Georgia College & State University(2002). She teaches online courses for the University System of Georgia’s eCore program, and face-to-face courses for Fort Valley State University. Her areas of interest include pre-history, ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and Rome, medieval English history, and colonial American history, particularly of the mid-Atlantic region. As an instructional designer, Ms. Locks has built several online courses, including the first US History I course for Central Georgia Technical College. She is interested in usability and accessibility in the online environment, the impact of technology on education and improving the instructor and student online experience. She was drawn to this textbook project due to the goals of making a textbook that would be affordable, accessible in several formats, and written and organized in such a way as to be approachable for students. Ms. Locks would like to first thank her co-authors, Tamara Spike, Pamela Roseman and especially the ever patient and ever available Sarah Mergel, as well as the others who made this project happen—Marie Lasseter, Mike Rogers, BJ Robinson, April Loebick, and Christy Talley Smith. She would also like to thank some very special people—Dr. Deborah Vess a pioneer who was putting history and technology together long before many in the field found it acceptable, Dr. Robert J. Wilson III who convinced Ms. Locks that American and Georgia history were actually fascinating, Dr. Frank Lowney a true innovator in the use of educational technology who taught Ms. Locks more than he’ll ever know, Dr. Andrea Novak, the most generous mentor, friend and example of how to behave in meetings and Dr. Fred R. van Hartesveldt, who always has time to listen—even when he almost certainly has none. Finally and most importantly, Ms. Locks wants to thank her family for their never ending support and especially her son, Benjamin, who more than anyone else has had to put up with her throughout this marvelous madness. Page | ii History in the Making AUtHor Biogr APHieS Sarah k. Mergel, Phd: Sarah Mergel received her BA in history and sociology from Boston College (1997) and her MA and PhD in history from The George Washington University (2002/2007). She works as an Assistant Professor of History at Dalton State College in Northwest Georgia teaching both face-to­ face and online classes. She specializes in American political, intellectual, and diplomatic history since the end of the Civil War. Much of her work in History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 focuses on political and economic developments in the Colonial Era, the Federalist Era, the Jacksonian Era, and the Civil War Era. Dr. Mergel has published several books and articles on twentieth century political figures and reform movements. Conservative Intellectuals and Richard Nixon: Rethinking the Rise of the Right (2009) examines how conservative intellectuals influenced and reacted to political and social developments during the Nixon administration. A Biography of John M. Gillespie: A Teamster’s Life (2009) looks at an influential member of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in the years before World War II. Her chapter for the Chronology of the U.S. Presidency (2012) was on Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Finally, she had published several encyclopedia articles on the populist movement, the origins of the New Deal, the Vietnamization program, the postwar conservative movement, the emergence of neoconservatism, and several political figures. Dr. Mergel would like to thank her co-authors, Cathy Locks, Tam Spike, and Pam Roseman for their willingness share ideas and write together to complete this open textbook. She also wants to say how much she appreciates how diligently Marie Lasseter, BJ Robinson, and April Loebick worked on helping this open textbook come together. Moreover, she wants to thank Mary Nielsen, the Dean of Liberal Arts, and Judy Cornett, the Chair of Social Sciences, as well as Matthew Hipps, Seth Weitz and the other members of the Department of Social Sciences Dalton State for their support during the project. They helped clarify her thoughts on such varied things as mercantilism and the Bill of Rights and encouraged her to keep writing even when it seemed like the writing process would never end and. Finally, Dr. Mergel wants to thank her family, especially Carolyn Mergel (her mom), for their willingness to listen to her ramble on about all things history. Page | iii History in the Making AUtHor Biogr APHieS Pamela thomas roseman, Phd: Born in Jacksonville, Florida, Pamela T. Roseman received her BA from Florida State University, did her MA work at Florida State and Georgia State Universities, and received her PhD from Georgia State University in 1980. Her fields of concentration include American Intellectual history, Renaissance and Reformation Europe, Tudor-Stuart England, and U.S. and Latin American colonial history. Her Master’s Thesis explores Puritan motivation in the settlement of New England; her dissertation is entitled Millennial Expectation Among Southern Evangelicals in the Mid-19th century. Dr. Roseman, a Professor of History at Georgia Perimeter College (GPC), has taught at the College since 1986, where from 1992-1999 she was also the Director of GPC’s Center for Teaching and Learning. Dr. Roseman became involved in online course development and delivery in 2000 when she and five other historians from University System of Georgia (USG) institutions created the early American course for the University System’s electronic CORE (eCore), an initiative of the USG Chancellor at the time. In 2002 this course won recognition as a WebCT Exceptional Course. Since 2000 she has developed and taught online courses in World History and currently teaches in the Online Program of Georgia Perimeter College. Between 2004 and 2007 Dr. Roseman participated in two U.S. Department of Education Teaching American History grants in which six professors from the University System of Georgia taught, mentored, and developed instructional materials for high school teachers from three metropolitan Atlanta school districts. The work accomplished in the grant cycles came as the result of faculty collaboration; this was also true of developing the eCore early American history course and the current eText, History in the Making: A History of the American People of the United States of America to 1877. Dr. Roseman has been a Governor’s Teaching Fellow, a Georgia Perimeter College Instructional Technology Scholar, a Georgia Perimeter College Fellow and an Academic Vice President’s Teaching Scholar. She has been active in the Georgia Association of Historians for many years, serving for a time on the Executive Board, in the Georgia Association for Women in Higher Education, for which she was Vice President and President, and as the Coordinator for the State of Georgia of the National Council of Staff and Organizational Development. Dr. Roseman would like to thank the Board of Regents of the State of Georgia, and especially Mike Rogers, Assistant Vice Chancellor for Faculty Development, for making this project possible; project director, Marie Lasseter for her perseverance and patience in working with the historians; editors from the University of North Georgia, BJ Robinson and April Loebick, for their helpful comments, and her fellow writers. Most of all she thanks her family: daughter, Amanda Colbenson of Brooklyn, New York, and husband, Gary Roseman, for their encouragement, patience, humor and insights and especially to Gary for convincing her that U.S. history did not end in 1789. With the support of family all things are possible. Dr. Roseman lives in Decatur and on St Simons Island, Georgia. Page | iv History in the Making AUtHor Biogr APHieS tamara Spike, Phd: Tamara Spike is a historian of colonial Latin America and the indigenous peoples of the Americas. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of History, Anthropology, and Philosophy at the University of North Georgia. Dr. Spike earned her MA and PhD in History from Florida State University, and holds a dual BA in Anthropology and Classical Archaeology. She has worked as a professional archaeologist on historic and prehistoric digs throughout Florida. From 1999-2010, she was a staff member of the Guadalajara Census Project, a group which works to analyze censuses from the city spanning the years 1790-1930, and to digitize these censuses for use by scholars, genealogists, and the public (http:// ). She is the English language editor of both Volume I and II of the published databases of the Guadalajara Census Project. Dr. Spike’s publications include “Making History Count: The Guadalajara Census Project (1791-1930)” in the Hispanic American Historical Review, “Si todo el mundo fuera Inglaterra: la teoría de Peter Laslett sobre la composición de las unidades domésticas vs. la realidad tapatía, 1821-1822,” in Estudios Sociales Nueva Época, “St Augustine’s Stomach: Indian Tribute Labor and Corn in Florida, 1565-1763” in Florida’s Labor and Working-Class Past: Three Centuries of Work in the Sunshine State, and “Death and Death Ritual among the Timucua of Spanish Florida,” in From La Florida to La California. Her research focuses on the ethnogenesis and cultural reconstruction of the Timucua Indians of Spanish Florida. In addition to the people and organizations thanked in the acknowledgements, Tamara Spike would like to extend her thanks to her family and the members of her department for their support. Page | v History in the Making History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 contents ChaPtEr OnE: UnItED StatES hIStOry BEfOrE COlUmBUS .......... 1 1.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 2 1.2 Origins ....................................................................................... 3 1.3 The Paleo-Indian Era through the Agricultural Revolution .................. 8 1.4 The Pre-Contact Era (1000-1492 CE) ............................................ 18 ChaPtEr tWO: thE GlOBal COntExt: aSIa, EUrOPE, anD afrICa In thE Early mODErn Era ................................................ 29 2.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 30 2.2 Europe in the Age of Discovery: Portugal and Spain ........................ 31 2.3 Asia in the Age of Discovery: Chinese Expansion During the Ming Dynasty .................................. 37 2.4 Europe in the Age of Discovery: England and France ....................... 41 2.5 Africa at the Outset of the Age of Discovery and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade ............................................................................... 46 ChaPtEr thrEE: InItIal COntaCt anD COnqUESt ....................... 66 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 67 3.2 The Impact of “Discovery”: The Columbian Exchange ...................... 69 3.3 The Iberian Countries in the New World ......................................... 78 3.4 Control: The Iberian Nations Manage Their New World Territories ...... 86 3.5 Alternate Models of Control: The French and Dutch in the Americas ... 91 ChaPtEr fOUr: thE EStaBlIShmEnt Of EnGlISh COlOnIES BEfOrE 1642 anD thEIr DEvElOPmEnt thrOUGh thE latE SEvEntEEnth CEntUry ................................................................ 109 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 111 4.2 The English Background ............................................................ 113 4.3 Roanoke, Raleigh’s Lost Colony ................................................... 117 4.4 Jamestown .............................................................................. 126 4.5 The Chesapeake Colonies: Maryland ............................................ 147 4.6 The Establishment of the New England Colonies ............................ 154 4.7 The Puritans and the Indians ...................................................... 172 4.8 New England in the Late Seventeenth Century: Declension, Witchcraft, and the Dominion of New England .............. 175 ChaPtEr fIvE: EnGlISh COlOnIzatIOn aftEr 1660 ................... 195 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 196 5.2 The English Background, 1660-1715 ........................................... 197 5.3 The Carolinas ........................................................................... 202 5.4 The Middle Colonies .................................................................. 208 5.5 Georgia: The Final Colony .......................................................... 228 Page | vi History in the Making ChaPtEr SIx: GrOWInG PaInS In thE COlOnIES ........................ 247 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 248 6.2 Colonial Administration .............................................................. 249 6.3 The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening ................................ 260 6.4 Colonial Conflicts and Wars ........................................................ 267 ChaPtEr SEvEn: thE rOaD tO rEvOlUtIOn, 1754-1775 ............. 288 7.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 289 7.2 The French and Indian War (1754-63) ......................................... 291 7.3 The End of the Seven Years War and Worsening Relations .............. 296 7.4 The Downward Slide to Revolution, 1772-1775 ............................. 308 ChaPtEr EIGht: thE amErICan rEvOlUtIOn .............................. 329 8.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 330 8.2 The Second Continental Congress, 1775-1781 .............................. 331 8.3 Revolutionary War Battles .......................................................... 337 8.4 The Impact of War .................................................................... 352 8.5 The Treaty of Paris, 1783 ........................................................... 364 ChaPtEr nInE: artIClES Of CO...
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