Module Details Principal Investigator Prof. Dr. Sanjukkta Bhaduri Professor, Urban Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Paper Coordinator Prof. Dr. Sanjukkta Bhaduri Content Writer Prof. Dr. Sanjukkta Bhaduri Content Reviewer Prof. Kavas Kapadia Former Dean, Urban Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Subject Name City & Metropolitan Planning Module Title Evolution of Settlements Part 1 Objectives •Paleolithic/Mesolithic Period •Neolithic Period •River Valley Civilization
1.Introduction This module presents the origins of settlement planning around the world, especially focusing on the planning philosophy and ideas introduced by humans at different era which led to the evolution of settlements from being a cluster of houses to complex modern cities that we have today. More broadly, over the longer historical span, scholars have evidently witnessed the very evolution of urbanization at different scales serving differently for different regions/climate/people etc. as per their need with the extent of use of invention of technology and governance possible at the specific periods and also how the progressive next settlements learnt from the mistakes/advancements of the previous and evolved. Historically, urban centers have grown up due to various factors, this module elaborates those factors and draws a clear picture of the background of the modern scenario. There are in together seven modules describing this very process of evolution at different phases; MODULE 1. 1.1.Before Christ Era (Part I) 1.1.1.Prehistoric settlements –Paleolithic/ Mesolithic 1.1.2.Neolithic Era settlements 1.1.3.River Valley civilizations MODULE 2. 1.2.Before Christ Era (Part II) 1.2.1.Aegean Civilization (3000 –338 BCE) 1.2.2.Empire of Alexander the Great (338 –324 BCE) 1.2.3.Mauryan Empire (322 –184 BCE) MODULE 3. 1.3.After Christ Era (Part III) 1.3.1.Gupta Empire (320 –550 ACE) 1.3.2.Roman Empire (27 –476 ACE) 1.3.3.Medieval Europe (5th–15thCentury) MODULE 4. 1.4.After Christ Era (Part IV) 1.4.1.Islamic Period (7th–13thCentury) 1.4.2.Mughal Period 8thCentury) 1.4.3.Ottoman Empire (13thCentury) 1.4.4.Byzantine Empire (14thCentury) MODULE 5. 1.5.After Christ Era (Part V) 1.5.1.Renaissance (14thCentury) 1.5.2.Baroque (1600 –1750 ACE)
1.5.3.Meso American (2000 BCE - 1600 ACE) MODULE 6. 1.6.Colonial Period –Global (Part I) 1.6.1.Colonial America 1.6.2.Colonial Africa 1.6.3.Colonial East Asia (excluding India) MODULE 7. 1.7.Colonial Period –Indian (Part II) 1.7.1.French Colonization 1.7.2.Portuguese Colonization 1.7.3.Danish Colonization 1.7.4.British Colonization 1.7.5.Spanish Colonization This paper will cover MODULE 1. 1.History of Settlements - Before Christ Era (BCE) a.Introduction Most of the people in history led a nomadic life—hunting animals and gathering edible plants for food. The first pre-condition for urban development is a favorable ecology. Climate change at the end of the Ice Age led to the receding of glaciers, people congregated in warm regions with fertile soil. The second precondition for sedentary life is the availability of food at the place of settlement.