54068344-Organizational-Behavior-1-1.ppt - Organizational...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizational Behavior 1.1 What is Organizational Behavior? Human Relations; Organizational Structure; Assigned Responsibilities; Economic and social aspect of employee; Integrated approach to achieve the organizational goals; OB focuses on understanding and explaining individual and group behavior in organization; Definitions of OB: OB can be defined as the understanding , prediction, and management of human behavior in organizations. – Fred Luthans OB may be defined as the systematic study of the nature of organizations- how they begin, grow, and develop, and they affect on individual members, constituent groups, other organizations, and larger institutions . – Joe Kelly OB is the study and application of knowledge about how people– as individuals and as groups act within organizations. – John Newstrom & Keith Davis 2 OB is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness. – Stephen P. Robbins The field of OB focuses on the micro aspects of organizations such as motivation, job satisfaction, and leadership. – Martin J. Gannon There are four components such as (Martin J. Gannon) Design of Organization, Planning and control, Behavioral process and Decision Making; 3 1.2 Nature of Organizational Behavior Field of study- it discusses concepts, theories, procedure, methods, & principles of behavior; Interdisciplinary subject- OB studied in Psycho, Mgt, Pol Sc., Soc, Engineering, and SW discipline etc. Applied science- to apply research findings to solve the behavioral problems; Humanistic and Optimistic issues- (Humneed & motivation, Opti- to believe in freedom, creativity, productivity of employee to achieve the organizational goals); 4 Normative and value centered- not only cause & effect relationship rather it is based on socially accepted and value centered approach; Total system approach- individual behavior, psychological structure, interpersonal relations are discussed in relations to socio-cultural perspective; Performance oriented- can differentiate employee in terms of skills, performance, quality enhancement and motivation using cause and effect method; Oriented toward organizational objectives/ Integration of objectives- coordinated with the personal and organizational goals and directed to achieve organizational goals; 5 1.3 Goals of OB Goals • To describe behavior- to relate behavior with organization, how people behave with organization decision, principle, philosophy, discipline etc. • To understand- to understand the inner causes of the behavior of the employee; • To predict the future outcomes- to protect uncertainty; • Control- to control behavior to achieve the goals of the organization; 6 1.4 Elements of OB o People- individual, group (people form groups for their interest, group dynamics); o Structure of Organization- worker, supervisor, manager, director, accountant etc. o Technology used in organization- can't produce more by bare hand, so technology is very essential. o Environment- organization affect environment, school, hospital, community centre etc. 7 Elements of OB (to establish good relation to ensure human welfare) Human Resources •Individual •Group Environment Structure •Government •Task •Competitors •Social •Relations System Organizational Behavior Technology •Machineries •Computer Hardware & Hardware 8 1.5 Basic Approaches of OB Inter-Disciplinary Approach- to enhance the relationship between employee and the organization; Human Resource Approach- to help and create environment to fully develop the skills and creativity; Contingency/Situational Approach- it was believed that same mgt principles would be used for all organization, but recent views is program taken based on a particular situation; Whole System Approach- activities of employee sometimes affect the total/partial part of the organization, before taking any program it is important to know the internal situation of the organization; lots of variable, interdependent, sub-stream, input-output, positive-negative, short term-long term; Whole system approach; Productivity/Result Oriented Approach- productivity depends on input-output ratio, if output increases out of same input it can be termed productivity; 9 1.5 Basic Approaches of OB Basic Approaches of OB Inter-Disciplinary Approach Human Resource Approach Contingency/Situational Approach Total System Approach Productivity/Result Oriented Approach 10 1.6 Models of OB Models- Sets of assumptions, principles, & instructions The Autocratic Model historical perspective is the ‘industrial revolution’, main assumption is ‘exercise of power ‘ by mgt., mgt. think they ‘understand better than anybody’, employee suppose to ‘follow order’ of the boss, & be ‘loyal’, employees are dependent to boss, employee don’t know the organization but know the boss; employee is compare with the ‘X’ theory of McGregor mgt. are only concern of employees ‘fundamental demands;’ employees are usually ‘feels insecure and frustrated’;11 The Custodial/Supervisory Model this model is ‘opposite’ to autocratic model, emphasizes on ‘welfare’ of the employee; there is provision for ‘reward’ for the good work of the employee, general assumption is the employee will depend on the ‘organization’ rather than boss; employee usually work with ‘positive motivation’; ‘productivity and growth’ increased; 12 The Supportive Model the model is similar to McGregor’s Y theory; assumed that man are not lazy by nature; the model is based on leadership human resources approach to create such environment in organization so that the organization will develop and employee enjoy to achieve the goals of the organization; the management support the task done by the employee rather than the employee; 13 The Collegial Model the model is called interrelated contribution (employee-employer) model ; an upgraded version of the supportive model; this model is normally applied in the research laboratory and where similar kind of working environment exists; all employee think that he has some contribution for the organization and the organization need him; he also think that other people has similar contribution for the organization; employee recognizes the contribution of the Mgt. management act like a partner, not as boss; 14 2.1 Definition of Motivation Motivation- Motive (a driven force to do something), Essential for Organization and Mgt. Positive Motivation- Good Salary, Job Security, Good Working Condition etc. Negative Motivation- Threat, Punishment, applying force etc. “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to take a desired course of action.” - Michael J. Jucius 15 “Motivation is the inner state of energies, channels that sustains human behavior.” - William F. Glueck “Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.” - R.W. Griffin “Motivation is a managerial function to inspire, encourage and impel people to take required action.” – S.A. Sherlekar 16 Motivation Process/Cycle Unsatisfied Need Need Satisfaction Goal Directed Behavior 17 Motivation Process/Cycle Need Tension Drives Goal Achievement Need Satisfaction Goal Directed Behavior Reduction of Tension 18 2.2 Importance/Proper Application of Motivation Spontaneous Participation of Worker; Increases Productivity; Role of Motivation in Job Satisfaction; Role of Motivation in Maximum Utilization of Human Resources; Encouraging the Worker to do more work; Proper Utilization of Production Elements; Change of Attitude and Behavior; Development of Labor Management Relation; 19 Conti-------- Importance/Proper Application of Motivation Labor Turnover Decreases; Increasing the Efficiency/Skill of Employee; Motivation Increases the Flow of WorkOrganization; Success in Technical Change; Success in Training Programme; Better Image; Reduction of Wastage; Development of Morale (increase positive morality); Organizational Development; 20 2.3 Factors of Employee Motivation Financial Incentives High Salary Sound Promotion Policy Bonus & Festival Bonus Profit Sharing Insurance Medical Facilities Residential Facilities/ House Loan Transportation Facilities Reward, & Other Financial Facilities 21 Factors of Employee Motivation Conti--- Non-financial Incentives 1. Commitment Certain goals, Security of job, Opportunity of promotion, Training facility, Recognition of work, Application of objective management, Following proper management rule, 22 Factors of Employee Motivation Conti----- 2. Opportunity to Secure Success Proportionality of responsibility and power; Equal distribution of power and responsibility; opportunity of autonomy in own job area; Developing job; Environment of participatory decision making; Direct communication; Satisfying the social and esteem need; Encouraging in creativity; 23 2.4 Theories of Motivation: Need Hierarchy Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Abraham Herald Maslow (1943) The theory is called Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory He has arranged human needs in five categories and arranged them in terms of importance- those are as followsPhysiological Needs Safety Needs Social Needs Esteem Needs Self Actualization 24 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Self Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs 25 Criticism of Maslow’s Motivation Theory These hierarchy of needs are not equally applicable for everyone; Which needs are currently fulfilling is not possible to know; Exception of this hierarchy is not discussed; Needs and motivation discussed by Maslow’s is simple, but in reality is not so simple; He has not discussed about the alternative goals (When targeted goals are not possible to achieve); Systematic satisfaction of needs is not true, 26 Two-Factor’s Theory Fredrick Herzberg’s (1959) studied work motivation at St. Pittsburg industrial area on 200 Engineers and Accountants, results found thatFactor- 1: Hygiene or Maintenance Factors(Items that influence the degree of job dissatisfaction) Company policy Supervision Salary Status Working Condition Security Inter-personal relationship 27 Factor- 2 : Motivational Factors (Items that influence the degree of job satisfaction) Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Personal growth Advancement 28 X & Y Theory Douglas McGregor (1960) in his book ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ stated X & Y theoryBasic Assumptions of ‘X’ theory (traditional/neg.) by nature man is lazy, and don’t like to work; less interest to work and try to avoid work, man wants to control and directed by others, limited high ambition and expect security and safety; greedy for money & no drive for creativity; man considered as machine, mgt don’t value them as a man; man work to avoid punishment; 29 Basic Assumptions of ‘Y’ theory (liberal/positive) democratic principle man don’t dislike work, they work like sports & sleep; there is no need to threat anybody to get the things done; man like to be self controlled & self-direction; man work for recognition (reward) and self development; man wants more and more responsibilities in appropriate environment; man has intelligence, creativity to solve organizational problems; 30 Expectancy Theory Victor H. Vroom of Yale University has proposed the theory of expectancy. Motivation depends on the following perceptionsMotivation (M) = Valence (V) X Expectation (E) Attractiveness- how results is important Practice and performance- how much work possible to do Job performance and reward relationpossibilities to get expected rewards Four phases of expectancy theoryPractice Skills Organizational Reward Personal31Goal Motivation (M) = Valence (V) X Expectation (E) Valence X Expectation Motivation Action Satisfactions Outcomes 32 Equity Theory J. Stacy Adam’s introduced equity theoryPerception of individuals in terms of justice/equityPerson (for own) = Obtained Results/ Input For Other’s = Obtained Results/ Input 33 ERG Theory Alderfer’s ERG Theory is an alternative to Maslow’s need hierarchy theory- E = Existence Needs- Foods, Cloths, Abode, safety are the needs for existence which are alternative to Maslow’s Physiological needs and safety needs; R = Relatedness Needs- means related with social environment such as- family, friends, relatives, peers and others, which are alternative to Maslow’s Social needs; G = Growth Needs- man wants to do some creative work and contribute in science, arts, commerce & other fields (Which is Maslow’s Esteem Needs); 34 Achievement Motivation Theory David C. McClelland’s proposed Achievement ExpectationTheory. For him, need created from experience and learning. He has divided human needs in three categories which are as follows1. 2. 3. Need for Achievement- challenging & risk involve; Need for Affiliation- individual present them pleasant and attractive to management/manager, manager also influence them; Need for Power- influence subordinates, want development, take responsibilities, enjoy decision-making role; 35 Goal Setting Theory (E. Locke, 1968) Goals Specific • Hard Participative Practice towards goals • • Attention • Incentive • Farm in own decision •Techniques to achieve goals • Development of work plan • Improved Performance Achieved Results 36 Leadership 3.1 What is Leadership? Lead- to show the path, to order, to direct Towards goals, to act as a frontal hero etc. Leadership IntraAbility to individuals relations influence others 37 “Leadership is the processes of influencing others to achieve organizational goals.” - Bartol and Martin “Leadership is the process of influencing and Supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives.” - Newstrom & Davis “Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.” - Stoner, Freeman & Gilbert 39 3.2 Nature and Characteristics of Leadership Presence of followers, influence on followers, & influencing power; Leadership is a process, is a process of inter-personal relationship; Leadership is a skill & ability to apply skills Leadership is Comparable with Strength Sum of Qualities Adjustment with the Situation 40 Idea About Subordinates Acceptability Effective Communication Leadership is situational Ability to bring changes in the organization Dependent of communication Ability to command loyalty Tendency to shoulder responsibility Miscellaneous- dignity, commitment to goals, risk taking tendency, 41 3.3 Qualities of a Leader 1. Membership- junior/senior member 2. Maturity of Mentality- mature & rationale 3. Ability to Counseling 4. Concept About Followers 5. Personality Development 6. Create Group Morality 42 7. Workers Developments 8. Flexibility & Elasticity 9. Acceptability of Criticism 10. Equity of Character 11. Providing Ability 12. Personality 13. Communication Skill 14. Personal Motivation 43 15. Technical Ability 16. Social Skill 17. Ability to Training 18. Patience 19. Sense of Responsibility 20. Inquisition Mentality 21. Analytical Power 44 3.4 Factors considering in successful leadership 1. Achieving Membership 2. Skill Organizer 3. Reward or Punishment System 4. Judges Role 5. Create Strong Morality 6. Achieving Confidence 7. Facing Crisis 8. Understanding Perception 9. Symbol of Welfare for Followers 45 3.4 Role & Function of a Leader 01. Policy Making 02. Planning 03. Coordinating 04. Role as a Specialist 05. Representation 06. Giving reward and penalty 07. Judge & Negotiator 08. Settlement of Dispute 09. Taking Decision 46 10. Guardian 11. Ideal 12. Face Emergency 13. Increase Group Morality 14. Intelligence 15. Technical skill 16. Courage 17. Flexibility 18. Providing Security 19. Promotion of Fraternity 20. Organizer, Inspiring, Integration etc. 47 3.3 Managerial Grid Managerial Grid Theory 9.1Countri Club Mgt Style 9.9 Team Mgt Style 8 7 6 5.5 M iddle of the R oad M gt Style 5 4 3 2 Weak M gt Style 1 2 3 XOX’= Concern for Production YOY’ = Concern for Employee 4 55 66 7 8 9.1 A utocratic Task M gt St. 9 3.4 Theories of Leadership Path-Goal theory/modelPath-goal theory is proposed by Robert House, the leader who set-up the goals of the subordinates, explain the goals and try to improve the goals. He always try to improve the obstacles of the road. Two Major roles of path goals Goal Setting- Short-term, Long term goal (achievable); Improvement of Path- Directive Leadership, Supportive leadership, Participative leadership, achievement oriented leadership; Trait Theory Is called greatman theory (Barnard & Tead) By born great man bring some exceptional qualities, later those qualities made him/her a leader. Example- honesty, morality, values, etc. Behavioral Theory of Leadership Behavior is the key; Based on a set of collective behavior Types of Behavioral Theory 1. Continuous Theory of leadership- Autocratic vs democratic leadership 2. Managerial Grid Theory (Robert Blake & Jane Blake and Mouton proposed five styles of leadership (managerial grid) Weak/impoverished Mgt Style Autocratic Task Mgt Style Country Club Mgt Style Middle of the Road Mgt Style Team Mgt Style 3. Michigan Studies- Professor Rensis Likert (1940) Job Centered Style Employee Centered Style Follower Theory of Leadership F.H. Sanchord Followers are the key elements of this theory; Recognition of follower for leader is important; The leader should able to fulfill the demand of followers; Situational Leadership Leaders are the product of a given situation; Role of situation is very important for leadership development; Qualities of a leader is helpful for such leadership; A leader created in one situation may not be successful in other situation; “Leadership is the processes of influencing others to achieve organizational goals.” - Bartol and Martin “Leadership is the process of influencing and Supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives.” - Newstrom & Davis “Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.” - Stoner, Freeman & Gilbert 54 3.2 Nature and Characteristics of Leadership Presence of followers, influence on followers, & influencing power; Leadership is a process, is a process of inter-personal relationship; Leadership is a skill & ability to apply skills Leadership is Comparable with Strength Sum of Qualities Adjustment with the Situation 55 Idea About Subordinates Acceptability Effective Communication Leadership is situational Ability to bring changes in the organization Dependent of communication Ability to command loyalty Tendency to shoulder responsibility Miscellaneous- dignity, commitment to goals, risk taking tendency, 56 3.3 Qualities of a Leader 1. Membership- junior/senior member 2. Maturity of Mentality- mature & rationale 3. Ability to Counseling 4. Concept About Followers 5. Personality Development 6. Create Group Morality 57 7. Workers Developments 8. Flexibility & Elasticity 9. Acceptability of Criticism 10. Equity of Character 11. Providing Ability 12. Personality 13. Communication Skill 14. Personal Motivation 58 15. Technical Ability 16. Social Skill 17. Ability to Training 18. Patience 19. Sense of Responsibility 20. Inquisition Mentality 21. Analytical Power 59 3.4 Factors considering in successful leadership 1. Achieving Membership 2. Skill Organizer 3. Reward or Punishment System 4. Judges Role 5. Create Strong Morality 6. Achieving Confidence 7. Facing Crisis 8. Understanding Perception 9. Symbol of Welfare for Followers 60 Stress Management and Conflict Resolution Dr. Asoke Kumar Saha 4.1 Concept of Mental Stress STRESS IS A PERSON’S PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO CHANGE Sources of Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. Life events- such as divorce or separation, death of a loved one, the birth of a child, a major financial setback, employment changes or becoming the victim of a crime or natural disaster; Daily life events (psychological)- such as traffic congestion, long commutes, working overtime, deadlines, personal conflicts, car trouble, job stress, and juggling households c...
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