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Chapter 2: The ConstitutionIn 1942 representative Jennings Randolph proposed a constitutional amendment that would lower the voting age to 18 because he believed if young men were allowed to be called upon to go fight and die then they should be allowed to vote. And in 1954 president Dwight D. Eisenhower endorsed his idea in his state of the union address. The slogan for the campaign was “Old Enough to Fight, Old Enough to Vote”. By 1970 4 states had lowered the voting age to 18 and later that year congress had passed legislation lowering the voting age. The state of Oregon challenged the law and the U.S. Supreme Court agreed. This meant that in national elections 18 year olds could vote but the states had the right to choose if people under the age 21 were allowed to vote in state and local elections or not. This was until June 30, 1971 when the 26 amendment was passed. This was the quickest in the history of the constitutional amending process only lasting 3 months.2.1Roots of the U.S. ConstitutionBeginning in the early 17thcentury colonists came to the new world as they sought a new start on a continent where land was plentiful or where they saw business opportunities to be gained. New World: Western Hemisphere of the Earth, also called The Americas, which was unknown to Europeans before 1492The colonists agreed that the king ruled by divine right but they allowed liberties in terms of self-government and economic organizations. By the 1750s the development of colonial industry and relative self-governance by the colonies led to weakening ties with the Crown. Benjamin Franklin: brilliant inventor and senior statesman at the Const’l Convention who urgedcolonial unity as early as 1754, 22yrs before the Declaration of IndependenceFrench and Indian War: American phase of what was called the Seven Years War, fought from 1754 to 1763 btwn Britain and France with Indian alliesA.Trade and TaxationMercantilism: economic theory designed to increase a nation’s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favourable balance of trade Strict import/export controls by Britain (Britain tried to control colonial imports and exports)Widely ignored (the colonist saw little self-benefit in this operation so they just ignored it)Costly French and Indian War (1756-1763)-7yrs warNew taxes on sugar and paper items were put in place to help pay for the war (by BritishParliament on colonies)Sugar Act: taxes on sugar, wine, coffee, and other products commonly exported to the colonies; post-war colonial depression resented the taxStamp Act: law requiring all paper items (from cards to books) bought and sold inthe colonies to carry a stamp mandated by the crown. The tax itself was not offensive"No taxation without representation": new political cry in response to the stamp act out of fear that British Parliament would set precedent to control commerce and raise revenue without approval from colonial govtSons of Liberty (led by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry), Daughters of Liberty organized (Sam Adams