Psych560 lecture

Psych560 lecture - Psych Thursday 3/22/2007 Emotional...

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Psych Thursday 3/22/2007 Emotional Development Emotions -require cognition; appraisal -physiological reactions -neural/brain reactions -hormones/ fight or flight -communicate internal states to others -move us to actions foundations of relationships: emotions are where relationships come from. Components of emotional experience during development -Expression: faces, voices, words -how we show what we are feeling -Recognition -ability to recognize emotions as they are presented by others -Regulation -ability to keep emotions in check Expression: faces (focus of research in this area) -Darwin: “The expression of emotion in man and animals” (1872): Innate facial expressions (nativist theory) Faces--- Ekman: Cross-cultural research -adults agree on which faces = happiness, anger, sadness, and disgust (even if no word) -universal set of expressions (nativist theory) Are emotions present at birth? Moms: 1 month old faces express joy, fear, anger, surprise, interest Izard: videos of infants, motion-arousing events Raters agreed on interest, joy, surprise, sadness, but not anger, disgust, contempt Can we know what infants are REALLY feeling? Negative emotions are harder to pick up than the positive emotions Positive emotions Newborns: smile in REM sleep -bursts of brain stem activity 2 nd week:smile when awake -uncorrelated with environment -same brain stem activity as before
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3-8 weeks: increased smiles due to environment exogenous smiles -not really socially initiated Social smiling: reciprocally related to others’ smiles -2.5 to 3 months old -feedback loop 7 months or so: smile more at familiar faces Smiling and Nature/Nurture -blind children may not shift to social smiles -need reciprocal reactions -parents: feedback through touch -Nurture Premature infants smile late -at the appropriate gestational age -Nature (2 months premature, smile 2 months later in age from birth) Secondary emotions (self-conscious emotions) 18-24 months: embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, and envy -must think about self and others -ability to compare and rate self and others -unlike primary emotions (which are direct responses to events) Pride and Shame -cognition and emotion: must distinguish between easy and hard, success and failure -3 year old: increased pride after success on hard tasks than on easy tasks -increased shame if failed the easier task as well Negative Emotions Initially, undifferentiated distress Stranger anxiety – 6/7 month olds Often the first evidence of fear Emerges at around 6 or 7 months -unfamiliar people no longer provide comfort and pleasure in the same way as familiar people do Intensifies and last until about age 2 -variable across individuals and contexts Why does this start? Better recall memory (new vs. old events)
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 345 taught by Professor Zimmerman during the Fall '07 term at Wisconsin.

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Psych560 lecture - Psych Thursday 3/22/2007 Emotional...

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