12 Nutrition - Nutrition I Nutrition A Definitions 1 Nutrition The food eaten and the interaction between a living organism and the food Physical

12 Nutrition - Nutrition I Nutrition A Definitions 1...

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NutritionI. NutritionA. Definitions1. Nutrition - The food eaten and the interaction between a living organism and the food. Physical processes by which an organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports & utilizes food.2. Malnutrition - Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake above or below optimal to meet nutritional needs.3.Nutrient - a chemical substance in food that provides energy, structure and regulation of a body process.B. Calories vs. Nutrition 1. Why is food less nutritious? (Has less vitamins and minerals)3. What nutrients are used for:a. Pesticidesb. soil with few or no microbesc. high yielding crops deplete soil of micronutrients (Livestock Manure replaces micro-nutrients)2. Classes of nutrientsa. Carbohydrates - simple sugarsab & c are main building blocks and provide energyb. Proteins - amino acidsc. Lipids/fatsd. Nucleic acids (RNA, DNA) - nucleotidesa building blocke. Waterf. Vitaminsg. Mineralsa. Building blocks: protein makes up muscleb. Energy: usually burn carbohydrates, can burn protein. Needs 12 minutes of aerobic c. Regulation of metabolism: chemical reactiond. Temp control / chemical reaction / get rid of wasteexercise to burn fat.4. Amounts neededa. Too much - not good1. Toxicities rarely occur from food12
a. Exception polar bear liver is high in vitamin A.b. Megadose is 10Xthe RDA recommended dietary (daily) allowance or DV (daily value)Usually toxic reactions are from vitamin and mineral supplement2. Examples of problemsa. Fats - can lead to heart diseaseb. Fat soluble vitamins cause toxic reactions, vitamin A can cause damage to kidney,liver or bone.c. Large doses of vitamin B6 - causes problems in the nervous system, abnormalnumbness or poor coordination.b. Not enough not good1. Too little water - dehydration - causes headache, dizzy, confused, sunken eyes.2. Low doses of iron - decreases the ability to work, irritability.c. May vary with each individual.1. Genetics2. Lifestyle3. Health considerations d. How much is too much? How much is enough?1.RDA - recommended dietary (daily) allowance (or DV daily value)is the amount needed to prevent a deficiency- not what is needed to maximize health.2. Supplement Sales PeopleAre selling products to make money. * Be cautious & informed.3. The best amount may be in between for many supplements.e. Excess of some Nutrients are stored.1. Fat soluble vitamins are stored2. Excess dietary intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are stored as fat in the body5. Source of vitamins and minerals*micronutrients - milligrams*no energy - may help regulate the production of energy from macro nutrientsa. Fresh is best source because storage, processing and cooking often result in lossExceptions * Lycopene from tomatoes and carrots-B- carotene is accessible after some cookingb. Skin/peelings are often a good source- but what often has the chemicals – herbicides c. Processed white flour has very little nutrients13
d. The current ag practices may lead to very little vitamins and minerals in food - Large yields

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