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Sociology Study Sheets - 1 DURKHEIM Punishment is primarily...

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1 DURKHEIM Punishment is primarily concerned with keeping the society held together. Social Solidarity: What holds individuals together in social institutions Two Types of Solidarity: Mechanical and Organic (Society moved from Mech to Org) Mechanical Solidarity=more primitive societies, marked by kinship, lower levels of division of labor, strong shared collective conscience, higher-more repressive penal laws meant to restore the wounded collective conscience and shared morals. People feel a connection to each other through doing the same kind of work, religion, education, lifestyle. Organic Solidarity=more modern society where the society as a whole is the body and the individual is a part of that body serving their own functions, lower shared collective conscience and more civil laws (ex. Traffic laws). More independent autonomy and dependence on society. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THEN AND NOW Crime holds society together, it is not dysfunctional Crime built into social system (necessary) because a society defines itself by how we punish We can learn about a society through the transformation of the legal system (it’s strengths and it’s weaknesses) Collective Conscience: the body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of members of a society Punishment has become more lenient in modern society affects the personal offender…not their family. Durkheim Believes…
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2 -In order for punishment to restore the collective conscience, it must be public, passionate, organized (acts more on the witness than penalizing offender) This doesn’t really apply to modern society Governments do not have authority by themselves to delegate punishment and decide WHAT is crime. Society gives them that power, so essentially we make those decisions as a community. Authority has to enact with the collective conscience society participates in. Something is a crime b/c it shocks our conscience and authority may punish because of this fact. FOUCAULT The move from spectacular, public, gruesome punishment to the prison system is not a sign of a humanitarian impulse Punishment in prisons no longer concerned with the body, but with power on the “soul” (soul=person’s self concept) Power: the ability of individuals/groups to actualize their will, even if there is resistance from others Move from sovereign power to disciplinary power Disciplinary Power -hard to identify which individual has ultimate power because power is embedded in society (laws, rules, schedules, procedures, etc) -discipline meant to treat/”normalize” people -change/shape the mind and “soul” Power vs. Knowledge - There is no truth in knowledge, knowledge is what determines norm from crime - What is deviant is defined by our power structure - All knowledge lies in the powerful, so there is no truth in the knowledge
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3 - Power is diffused in society/procedures Not only do people have power, but so do the procedures/social institutions
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