Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam II

Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam II - CD110...

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CD110 INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS Review Lecture for Second Exam November 14, Fall 2007 I. Speech Anatomy and Physiology A. Respiratory system as power supply, develops relatively constant pressures that will be used to create vocal fold vibration, and momentary changes in pressure required for linguistic stress. Pressure developed by respiratory system is the primary determiner of overall speech loudness. B. Larynx as sound generator, or source of sound, produced by vocal fold vibration; phonation is the term applied to the act of producing speech sounds with the period vibration of the vocal folds. The vocal folds vibrate at different rates for men, women, and children, and their rate of vibration determines the pitch of the voice. Vocal fold vibration also important for conveying linguistic stress and emotional states. C. Vocal tract as the shaper of the sound produced by the vocal folds; the vocal tract shapes this sound into the individual elements we call the sounds of speech. Best way to think about the vocal tract is a flexible tube that can be shaped in a large number of ways for different kinds of sound production. 1. Resonance is the phenomenon where an object will vibrate with maximal amplitude at a single (or sometimes multiple) frequencies; the frequencies where it vibrates with the greatest amplitude are called resonant frequencies. The air in the vocal tract tube vibrates with maximal amplitude at several different frequencies; these are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract, and they change when the tube shape changes. The resonances of the vocal tract are also called formant frequencies. Bilabial Labio-dental Interdental Lingua-alveolar Palato-alveolar Velar Stops p b t d k g Fricatives f v "th" "th" s z "sh" "zh" Affricates "ch" "j"
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D. Place of articulation refers to where the main constriction is made in the vocal tract for a consonant production. For example, the place of articulation for sounds such as “p” (stop consonant) and “m” (nasal) is bilabial (two lips) because the vocal tract is closed at the lips to produce these sounds. Similarly, the place for a sound such as “s” is lingualveolar because the constriction for this fricative is made by placing the front of the tongue (lingua) on the arch of the bone behind the front teeth (called the alveolar ridge, hence “alveolar”). E. Manner is how the sound is made—is the air completely blocked for a brief period of time (a stop consonant) or is there a small constriction made through which air is forced (fricative)? II.
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course COM DIS 110 taught by Professor Weismer during the Winter '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam II - CD110...

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