Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam III

Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam III - CD110...

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CD110 INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS Review Lecture for Section on Hearing December 12, FALL 2007 I. A. Terminology for sound 1. Kinematics: the study of pure motion (vibration of air molecules) 2. Dynamics: the study of causes of motion (what causes the motion of molecules?) 3. Oscillatory Motion: back and forth motion 4. Frequency: the rate of the oscillation 5. Amplitude: the magnitude of the oscillation 6. Mode of vibration: the natural frequency of oscillation (resonance) 7. Superposition: the sum of the oscillations a. “Simple harmonic motion” vs. “complex sounds”, which is the sum of many different frequencies of simple harmonic motion 8. Perceptual vs. Physical terms: pitch vs. frequency; loudness vs. intensity II. A. Peripheral: the outer, middle, and inner ears 1. Conductive components: the outer ear (OE) and the middle ear (ME) 2. Sensory components: the cochlea
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3. Neural components: the eighth cranial nerve (auditory nerve) and nuclei B. The Outer Ear (OE) 1. Anatomy: the auricle (pinna) and the external auditory meatus (external ear canal) 2. Physiology: the auricle collects sounds and localizes them, while the ear canal collects and amplifies sounds and protects the ear C. The Middle Ear (ME) 1. Anatomy: the tympanic membrane (ear drum), the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), the tympanic cavity (tympanum and attic), and the Eustachian tube 2. Physiology: sound conduction, impedance matching, and the Eustachian tube (aeration and drainage) D. The Inner Ear 1. Anatomy: the vestibular system and the auditory (cochlea) a. Chambers: scalae tympani, vestibule, media b. Fluids: perilymph and endolymph c. Hair cells: inner and outer, act as sensory organs 2. Physiology: transduction (hydraulic to electrochemical) and encoding of sounds a. Amplification: outer hair cells b. Frequency: place and periodicity (tonotopic) E. The Central Auditory Nervous System 1. Anatomy: brainstem nuclei (cochlear nucleus, superior olive, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate), fiber tracts, and the cortex (Heschl’s gyrus in the temporal lobe) 2. Physiology: tonotopic representation and reflexes 3. There is a series of neural structures (cells and pathways) that conduct impulses to the hearing cortex in the temporal lobe
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F. The Impedance Matching Function of the Middle Ear
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course COM DIS 110 taught by Professor Weismer during the Winter '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Complete Study Guide for ComDis Exam III - CD110...

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