Nietzsche, Durkheim, and Foucault

Nietzsche, Durkheim, and Foucault - Nietzsche Durkheim...

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Nietzsche, Durkheim, Foucault, and Spierenberg I. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) a. German philosopher i. Critical work on religion, culture, morality, and science ii. Famous ideas: 1. God is dead 2. Will to power b. “On the Genealogy of Morals” i. Understanding punishment: 1. We all have vengeful feelings 2. Laws and institutions make crime less personal 3. Cannot find origins or define punishment, but we look at  history to understand it 4. As society becomes stronger, less punishment is needed ii. Modernization of punishment: 1. Punishment is tied to the strength of the community 2. As political power goes up, punishment goes down iii. Punishment and crime control: 1. Makes men hard and cold 2. Has a reverse effect 3. Does not awaken guilt II. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) a. French sociologist i. Critical work on religion, education, crime, and suicide ii. Famous ideas: 1. Social fact 2. Anomie 3. Functionalism b. “The Division of Labor in Society” i. Understanding punishment: 1. Functionalism:  social solidarity 2. Crime happens because it “shocks the collective  consciousness” 3. Punishment will fail ii. Modernization of punishment: 1. Punishment is tied to the strength of the community 2. As political power goes up, intensity follows
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iii. Punishment and crime control: 1. Remove offenders from society and into prison 2. Punishment will fail as means of controlling crime III. Michel Foucault (1926-1984) a. French philosopher, historian, and sociologist i. Critical work on institutions, medicine, psychiatry, and sexuality ii. Famous ideas: 1. Biopower 2. Episteme b. “Discipline and Punish” i. Understanding punishment: 1. Crime is about sovereignty of state and political  domination ii. Modernization of punishment: 1. Punishment has become more centralized, which is  necessary to standardize it 2. It is not enlightenment, but only a better means of political  control 3. More refined 4. Hide and cover face to dehumanize the criminal 5. More people add to the penal process, rather than just the  judge punishing IV. Pieter Spierenberg a. “The Body and State” i. A more centralized way of punishing 1. More refined, more equal way of punishing ii. Because punishment comes from family, it is a more paternalistic  form of punishment iii. Used theatrics to deter offenders iv.
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