Vocabulary Study Guide for Exam II-PSYCH

Vocabulary Study Guide for Exam II-PSYCH - Vocabulary Study...

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Vocabulary Study Guide for Exam II CHAPTER FOUR (pp. 139-195) ●Developmental Psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. ●Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. ●Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. ●Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. ●Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. ●Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. ●Rooting Reflex: a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple. ●Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. ●Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. ●Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. ●Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. ●Accommodation: adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. ●Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. ●Sensorimotor Stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
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●Object Permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. ●Preoperational Stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. ●Conservation: the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. ●Egocentrism: in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view. ●Theory of Mind: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict. ●Autism: a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind. ●Concrete Operational Stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
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