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SOME CONCEPTS AND TOPICS FOR THE SECOND EXAMred- will be on exam ●Ultimatum game○two people, one receives a sum of money and proposes how to divide it between the two (fair or unfair) and the other person can choose whether or not to accept the proposal (accept or reject). First person will only get the money if the other person accepts the offer; if the other person rejects, they both get nothing.■absolute utility - the second person will take the $ because it is more than they started with. ■relative utility - the second person will reject the offer because it is not worth it in comparison to the other person.○rational person will take money to increase absolute utility ●Relative deprivation theory of revolution○When there is rapid improvement in conditions, some improve more rapidly than others. Those whose conditions aren’t improving rapidly enough look at the others and perceive a widening gap → discontent ○People who are deprived of things deemed valuable in society join social movements with the hope of redressing their grievances.●Rising expectations theory of revolution○When there is a certain rate of improvement in objective conditions, economic or political, this creates rising expectations, so people expect to be better off.○But the expectations rise faster than the rate of improvement in the objective conditions, thus there is an increasing gap between expectations and reality. ○When the perception of needs satisfaction decreases, but expectation continue to rise, a widening gap is created between intolerable and sets thestage for rebellion against a social system that fails t fulfill its promises.○As society gets better the technology gets better which raises expectations but the reality of it doesn't●Anomie○Durkheim: The term for lack of sufficient moral regulation in which individuals are left to their own egotistical pursuits without a sufficient sense of more obligation to others ■Not enough regulation■Without rules regulating our desires, we will constantly want to do more.■if everything is possible, then nothing will seem fully satisfactory.■State of normlessness - riles become meaningless because they are not being enforced correctly○Merton: Norms and laws that don't serve the function that they were intended to●Rituals of rebellion - functions
○a type of ritual in which the accepted social order is symbolically turned on its head■an expression of underlying social tensions○ultimately functioned to reinforce social order, insofar as they allowed those tensions to be expressed without leading to actual rebellion○manifest function: to purge sentiment/ relieve grievances against hierarchyor government ■ex: SNL - comedic relief to relieve those grievances ○latent function: collectively as a society it satiates resentment ■ex: white house correspondent dinner ●Egoistic suicide○stems from excessive individualism○will not think of externalities ○If you are not integrated into society, no one will save you.