ELM3_AnswerKey - ELEMENTS of SUCCESS Student Book 3 Unit 1 Warm-Up A Fact Opinion 1 TV programs were much better ten years ago 2 Most young children

ELM3_AnswerKey - ELEMENTS of SUCCESS Student Book 3...

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Unformatted text preview: ELEMENTS of SUCCESS  •  Student Book 3 Unit 1 Warm-Up A Fact Opinion 1. TV programs were much better ten years ago. ✓ 2. Most young children spend too much time in front of a television ✓ 3. When Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon in 1969, about 500 million people were watching him on TV. ✓ 4. Fewer young people are watching television, according to a report by media analysts at Ofcom. ✓ Activity 2: Be, Do, and Have: Main Verb or Helping Verb? Main Verb 5. Television in the future is going to be totally different. 1. There are about 7 billion people in the world today. ✓ ✓ 3. Populations have doubled in many countries over the last 20–30 years. 7. The first television sets were huge but they had very small screens. ✓ 4. The fastest-growing country is Uganda. ✓ 9. In the future, you won’t need a screen to watch television. ✓ 1. simple present: 2, 6, 8 present progressive: 4, 6 simple past: 1, 3, 7 past progressive: 3 future with will: 9 future with be going to: 5 2. 2, 8. These statements use the simple present and don’t include words or phrases that tell when they might happen. 3. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. These statements use a past or future tense and include words or phrases that tell when the statements would be true. ✓ ✓ ✓ 8. TV makes children less intelligent. Helping Verb 2. The number of people in the world is increasing. 6. Sixty-six percent of Americans regularly watch television while they are eating dinner. B ✓ 5. In some countries, the population is decreasing. ✓ 6. The U.S. population has grown by nearly 18 million since 2000. ✓ 7. Many countries do a census every 5 or 10 years. That’s when the government counts the number of people in the country. ✓ 8. Today roughly 301 million people are living in the U.S. 9. Some experts believe that in 50 years, the world will have 9 billion people. ✓ ✓ 10. New York City’s population has passed 8.25 million. ✓ 11. “We have an enormous population here,” said the mayor of New York. ✓ future: will regret past: didn’t do, did do 12. Human population is a key factor in the health of the planet. ✓ Activity 1: Identifying Main Verbs and Helping Verbs The worst advice I have ever received was from a friend. She told me not to take an overseas trip I was planning because it would be too expensive. I ignored her advice and took the trip anyway. I had the most thrilling time of my life. I am a classical pianist, and I was already planning a trip to St. Petersburg, Russia to play in a piano competition there. At the time, I was living in Los Angeles, California, so it was quite a long journey to Russia. I thought to myself, as long as I would be 6,000 miles away from home, I might as well stay longer than just the two-day competition. I would visit some other places near St. Petersburg, too. 13. Population has always been a controversial topic. ✓ 14. Some countries don’t have a population problem. ✓ 15. During the period from 1877 to 1913, the U.S. population was growing at a staggering rate. ✓ C 2 Because I am a classical musician, I wanted to visit the homes of some great composers. I went to Finland and saw the small house where Jean Sibelius had composed most of his symphonies. In St. Petersburg, I took a tour of the home of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. He was a composer and teacher. His most famous student was Igor Stravinsky—I actually played on Stravinsky’s piano. For a pianist like me, it was a great thrill. After three fantastic weeks in Finland and Russia, it was time to go home. My friend was right—the trip wasn’t cheap. But I’m glad that I ignored her advice and went on the trip. Now I have memories that will stay with me for the rest of my life. U n i t 1  E L E M E NT S of S U C C E S S • S t u de nt B o ok 3 Elements of Success L3 Answer Key.indd 2 8/27/14 2:31 PM Activity 3: Identifying Main Verbs 1. Some students pursue master’s degrees, while others study to receive doctorates. 2. For example, business students get an MBA, which means “Master of Business Administration.” 3. A doctorate is the highest degree that a student can earn. 4. Most medical doctors train for an MD, which comes from the Latin medicinae doctor. 5. Someone with a PhD is a doctor of philosophy. 6. Many students earn a PhD, but not many study the field of philosophy specifically. 7. In 2010, almost 50,000 students received a PhD. 8. Most of the degrees were in science and engineering. 9. Some students complete a master’s program before they start a PhD program. 10. A PhD usually requires three years of full-time study, and then students must pass special exams. 11. PhD students also carry out original research. 12. Students present their findings by writing a long research report or dissertation, which can take years to complete. 13. Doctoral students may experience a lot of stress. Activity 4: Learning Grammar from a Dictionary 1. saw 2. seen 3. a. Please see if anyone is here yet.  2 b. I’m beginning to see the advantages of living in a city.  6 c. I see us living in the country in 20 years.  3 d. You can see that bus from two miles away.  1 e. You should see a doctor right away.  5 f. You must see the exhibit before it closes!  4 g. My grandfather doesn’t see very well.  7 Write about It Answers will vary. Possible answers include: 1. See who is at the front door. 2. I’ll see you in class tomorrow. 3. I don’t see my sister as a lawyer. Activity 5: Exploring Uses of the Simple Present 1. Most people don’t get enough sleep.  a 2. Silence is golden.  a 3. It snows here a lot in the winter.  a 4. I’m a little hungry now.  c 5. I have dark brown hair and brown eyes.  a 6. I don’t need anything right now.  c 7. Some scientists say musical training seems to improve communication skills.  a 8. It takes two or three years to get a master’s degree.  a 9. I don’t always have breakfast.  b 10. You need a license to practice medicine.  a 11. The General Assembly of the United Nations meets for several months every year.  a Think about It Sentences 4 and 6 describe what is happening now. Activity 6: Spelling Analysis 1. If the y comes after a vowel, we just add -s. If the y comes after a consonant, we change the y to i and add -es. 2. We add -es instead of -s when the word ends in -sh, -ch, -ss, -z, or -x. 3. a. denies b. matches c. suggests d. relaxes e. supplies f. misses g. fries h. sleeps i. expresses j. modifies k. faxes l. reaches m. pushes n. dresses o. plays Activity 7: Subject-Verb Agreement 1. The caffeine in three cups of coffee seems to have a positive effect on women but not men. According to one study, female coffee drinkers over the age of 60 are less likely to experience a decline in verbal skills. 2. Experts say that most people need about 8 hours of sleep a night. Unfortunately, not everyone gets it. According to the National Sleep Foundation’s annual survey, the average adult gets just 6.9 hours of sleep a night. New research suggests that a decline in sleep time means a decline in your health. 3. Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals. Researchers claim that tobacco smoke has as many as 60 substances that may cause cancer. 4. Many people today change jobs frequently. As a matter of fact, some studies say that the average person holds at least 7 jobs before he or she reaches age 30. What may be more surprising, though, is that many people have several careers in their lifetime. People have many reasons for making career changes. Some come to the end of their career plan. Others find that their career plan is no longer right for them. Many people want to pursue personal interests or run a business of their own. 5. Vitamin C in large doses appears to do little harm. But recent studies also show that it is largely ineffective. Think about It These writers are making general statements. Activity 8: Error Correction 1. I really admire my father. He is a mechanic, and he knows a lot about cars, stoves, and other machines. My father is selfemployed, and he travels to people’s houses to fix things. Whenever I’m home, I go with him on his jobs so that I can watch him. In my opinion, anybody who knows how to fix things is a genius. I guess that makes my father a genius. 2. My grandfather takes very good care of himself. He is gets up early in the morning so he can do tai chi in the park near his house. He tries to get his wife, my grandmother, to join him, but she doesn’t like to exercise, so he always goes by himself. 3. My mother is the most hard-working person I know. She doesn’t have a paying job like my father; she has a job that doesn’t pay. My mother takes care of our house. She takes care of everyone and everything in our house. She keeps the house clean, and she cooks the best food you will ever have. Beyond all this, I think my mother is the only person who understands me. 4. I am from Costa Rica, but my roommate is from the U.S. Needless to say, her English is a lot better than mine. The thing I especially like about her is that she helps me with my English. Whenever I say something incorrectly, she just says it correctly for me. Write about It Answers will vary. Possible answers include: My sister works harder than anyone I know. She is a mom, but she is also a lawyer. She works hard to help other families, and she works hard taking care of her own family. E L E M E NT S of S U C C E S S • S t u de nt B o ok 3  U n i t 1 Elements of Success L3 Answer Key.indd 3 3 8/27/14 2:31 PM Activity 9: Simple Present or Present Progressive? 1. A: Nice piano. Who plays it? B: Nobody anymore. 2. A: That’s my favorite piano piece. Who is playing it? B: That’s Uchida. 3. A: David tells us you move furniture. B: That’s right. It’s a family business. 4. A: Why are you moving the furniture? B: Because I need to clean the floor. 5. A: I don’t know how to say this. B: Say what? A: Well, um, I just . . . I just . . . B: What are you trying to say, James? A: I, um, I lost my job. 6. A: I can’t move this thing. B: Yes, you can. You just aren’t trying hard enough. 7. A: What are you listening to? B: It’s a group called the Bald Eagles. Do you like it? A: Not especially. Could you turn it down? 8. A: Do you want to choose some music for the trip? B: Sure. What kind of music do you listen to? A: Usually jazz, but anything’s OK. 9. A: What are you doing up so late? B: I have jet lag. 10. A: That’s a steep driveway. What do you do when it snows? B: I stay home. 11. A: Why are you wearing a coat? B: Because it’s cold in here. 12. A: Do you wear a school uniform? B: Yes, it’s brown and white. I’ll show it to you someday. Think about It The speakers in conversations 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 chose the present progressive because they were talking or asking about something in progress at that time. The speakers in conversations 1, 3, 8, 10, and 12 chose the simple present because they were asking about something habitual. Activity 10: Habitual or Temporary? HT 4 1. Amanda sees John at his computer. Amanda: Why (do you talk / are you talking ) to the computer? John: I (try / am trying ) to follow every step correctly to set up this program! HT 2. Emma and her husband, Matt, share the housecleaning. This week it is Matt’s turn to clean the house. Matt: Emma, can you pick up your clothes? You ( leave / are leaving) them on the floor all the time! Emma: But I ( pick up / am picking up) my clothes when I clean the house! HT 3. Kate sees her husband emptying boxes on the floor of the living room. Kate: What (do you do / are you doing )? Husband: I (look for / am looking for ) my cell phone. Kate: But you (make / are making ) a big mess of everything! I just packed those boxes! HT 4. Mika and Isabel like to do gardening. Mika: When ( do roses bloom / are roses blooming) in this part of the country? Isabel: I think they ( bloom / are blooming) in late June. HT 5. Sarah has decided to change some things in her life because she wants a healthier lifestyle. Rob notices the change. Rob: ( Do you exercise / Are you exercising) every day now? Sarah: Yes, and I ( don’t eat / am not eating) meat anymore either. I ( eat / am eating) more vegetables and fruits instead. HT 6. Mary is taking her daughter to school in the morning. Mary sees her daughter behind her and calls out to her. Mary: Hurry up! Why (do you walk / are you walking ) so slowly? Think about It Answers will vary. Possible answers include: For statements, we use am / is / are + (not) + the -ing form of a main verb, For wh- questions, we use a wh- word + am / is / are and the -ing form of a main verb. Activity 11: Present Verb Forms in Essay Responses I think that the traditional role of fathers is changing. The most obvious way it is changing is in work and career. In the past, fathers had a career and went to work each day, while mothers stayed at home to take care of the children. But today it is common for mothers to work and have a career just like fathers. Many times when this is the case, the children go to daycare. But another option is becoming available. Some fathers are choosing to stay at home and take care of their children while their wives go to work. It is not yet a common thing, but more and more fathers are leaving their careers to take care of their children. Activity 12: Describing Changes with the Present Progressive Answers will vary. Possible answers include: Air travel is getting less comfortable. Children are getting bigger every day! Cars are becoming more and more complicated with new technology. Computer power is becoming less expensive. Even with many more programs, television is getting worse. The world is getting smaller as technology is increasing. Write about It Answers will vary. Possible answers include: Air travel is getting less comfortable. Nowadays, the airlines want to save money on fuel, so they are crowding more passengers onto fewer airplanes. To make more money, some airlines are also charging for each suitcase you check. As a result, many passengers are carrying extra luggage onto the airplane. This makes the airplane feel crowded. Activity 13: Commenting on Habitual Behavior Answers will vary. Possible answers include: 1. My friend Sam is one of those people. He is always buying things he doesn’t really need. 2. My friend Julie is a good example. She really enjoys her work, so she is constantly working. 3. My mother is like that. She is always talking to friends and family. 4. My roommate does that. She is constantly using my things! 5. My friend Esther enjoys gossip. She always knows what is happening in others’ lives. U NIT 1  E L E M E NT S of S U C C E S S • S t u de nt B o ok 3 Elements of Success L3 Answer Key.indd 4 8/27/14 2:31 PM Activity 14: Distinguishing Action and Non-Action Verbs (A) 1. Everybody is talking today about the economy. (N) 2. Men and women belong to different species, and (N) communication between them is still in its infancy. (N) 3. The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow. (N) (N) (N) 4. Whenever people agree with me, I always feel I must be wrong. (N) (N) 5. A man possesses talent; genius possesses the man. (A) (N) 6. I buy expensive suits. They just look cheap on me. (N) (N) (N) (N) 7. I know that I am intelligent because I know that I know nothing. (A) (N) 8. The more I see, the less I know for sure. (N) (A) (N) 9. I don’t care what anybody says about me as long as it isn’t true. (A) (N) 10. We hire people who want to make the best things in the world. Think about It We use both the simple present and the present progressive for active and non-active meanings. Activity 15: Choosing the Correct Meaning 1. A: We’re having some friends over tonight. Can you come?  b B: Sure. I’d love to. 2. A: Do you want to go out to dinner? B: No, I don’t have any money.  a 3. A: Are you having fun?  c B: Sure. Why do you ask? 4. A: So what changes when you have a baby?  d B: What changes? You mean what doesn’t change! 5. A: Are you going anywhere during the break? B: I doubt it.  a 6. A: Are you sure you didn’t see my ring? B: Are you doubting me?  b A: No, of course not. 7. A: What are you doing tonight? B: I’m meeting Paul for dinner. A: When are you seeing him?  b B: Right after work. 8. A: Do you see anyone out there?  a B: No, there’s nobody there. 9. A: There’s no reason to do this again. B: I see what you mean.  c 10. Clive Ellington is appearing for the first time at the Everett Theater on Monday, July 13, at 7:30.  c 11. A new study, which appears in the July issue of the American Journal of Public Health, suggests that strong social ties can delay memory problems.  d 12. The president and his wife appear to be excellent parents.  b 13. When I click Save, an error box appears on the screen.  a 14. A: What do you think of the new library?  a B: It’s beautiful. 15. A: Are you really thinking about cutting your hair?  c B: Yes, it’s much too long. 16. A: What are you thinking about?  b B: Nothing special. Think about It For the verb have, definitions b, c, and d have an active meaning. Definition a has a non-active meaning. For the verb doubt, definitions b has an active meaning. Definition a has a non-active meaning. For the verb see, definitions a, b, and d have an active meaning. Definitions c and e have a non-active meaning. For the verb appear, definitions a, c, and d have an active meaning. Definition b has a non-active meaning. For the verb think, definitions b and c have an active meaning. Definition a has a non-active meaning. Write about It Answers will vary. Possible answers include: A: Do you have any children? B: Yes, I have three sons. A: I’m thinking about changing jobs soon. B: Really? Why is that? Activity 17: Simple Present or Present Progressive? 1. A: What are you doing in Los Angeles? B: Oh, we are seeing some old friends from college. 2. A: Why are you worrying so much about Matt? B: Because I don’t see how he’s going to find a job. He’s not even trying. 3. A: Do you like to travel? B: Yes, I love to. 4. A: How’s your vacation going? B: We are loving every minute of it. 5. A: What do you think of your new boss? B: She is a really nice person. 6. A: Are the children behaving themselves? B: No, they are being unusually naughty today. 7. A: Can I use your phone? B: Sorry, but I don’t have one. 8. A: This is my friend Carlos. He is having dinner here, too. B: Nice to meet you. 9. A: I think we need to talk. B: What about? A: I feel that you aren’t doing your share of the work. B: Why do you think that? A: Well, for one thing, you’re never here when I need you. 10. A: I’m really angry about last night. B: I’m sorry you feel that way. 11. A: Do you know what you are going to do? B: Yeah, I am thinking of taking some time off to relax. 12. A: What do you think of the food here? B: It’s not bad. Activity 18: Error Correction 1. A: Is this your car? B: No, I don’t own a car. (no errors) 2. A: The chess club is meeting tonight. Are you going? B: No, I don’t belong to that club. 3. A: Do you prefer to stay home tonight? B: I don’t care. What do you want to do? 4. A: What’s that noise? B: I don’t hear anything. 5. A: Why are you looking at me like that? B: Like what? A: Angry. You look angry. 6. A: What do you think of this TV? Do you like it better than the other one? B: Well, this one’s bigger, but the other one’s cheaper. E L E M E NT S of S U C C E S S • S t u de nt B o ok 3  U NIT 1 Elements of Success L3 Answer Key.indd 5 5 8/27/14 2:31 PM 7. A: What are you looking at? B: There’s something on the street over there. A: What is it? B: I’m not sure. It looks like a box. (no errors) 8. A: Is this wood or plastic? I can’t tell. B: It feels like plastic. 9. A: Are you looking for something? B: Yes, I need something to write with. Activity 19: Distinguishing Regular and Irregular Verbs After the American War of Independence, the new government ordered a census—a count of the number of people in each state. Work on the census started in August 1790, about a year after George Washington became president. The law required that census takers visit ev...
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