2012_Book_AlternativeEnergySources.pdf - Green Energy and Technology For further volumes http\/www.springer.com\/series\/8059 Efstathios E(Stathis

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Unformatted text preview: Green Energy and Technology For further volumes: Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides Alternative Energy Sources 123 Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides Department of Engineering TCU Fort Worth, TX USA e-mail: [email protected] ISSN 1865-3529 ISBN 978-3-642-20950-5 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-20951-2 e-ISSN 1865-3537 e-ISBN 978-3-642-20951-2 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2011942743 Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) To the memory of my parents Emmanuel and Eleni Preface In the beginning of the twenty-first century, our society is faced with an energy challenge: as highly populous, developing countries become more affluent and as the developed nations continue to increase their energy consumption, the energy demand in the entire world has reached levels that cannot be sustained in the future. At the same time, fossil fuels, which are currently providing more than 85% of the total global energy supply, are limited and, in addition, their widespread use has significant adverse environmental consequences. The combustion of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide, which is one of the causes of global warming as well as of other environmental effects, such as acid rain; higher ozone concentration in urban areas; particulates; and aerosols that are detrimental to air quality. The limited supply of the fossil fuels and their effects on the global environment indicate the only long-term solution of the energy challenge: a significant increase in the use of alternative energy sources for the production of electricity as well as for meeting other energy needs of the industrial and post-industrial human society. This book on Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20–50 years). The book is aimed at two types of audience: a. The student of science and engineering who may take an elective course on one of the subjects of ‘‘alternative energy,’’ ‘‘renewable energy,’’ ‘‘sustainability,’’ etc. For this purpose, the students will review and expand on several concepts taught in the traditional disciplines of Thermodynamics, Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer. If ‘‘repetition is the mother of learning,’’ students in the engineering disciplines will learn a great deal of the material taught in the Thermal Sciences courses by studying this book. b. The educated reader, who has a basic knowledge of mathematics and science (e.g. algebra, elementary physics and elementary chemistry). The book assumes minimum prior knowledge on behalf of the reader and imparts some of the vii viii Preface pre-requisite knowledge by including chapters on basic thermodynamics, and elementary financial accounting (investment appraisal methods). A unique aspect of this book is that it includes two chapters on nuclear fission and one on fusion energy. The reason for this is that nuclear energy does not contribute to the greenhouse effect and is currently viewed by many decision makers as an excellent alternative option for the production of electricity in the twenty-first century. As a result, and despite the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the licensing process for additional nuclear power plants has accelerated in several countries and the debate for the future of nuclear energy has been recently renewed. Nuclear energy, a perennial pariah of environmental groups, may actually become one of the solutions to the global climate change. The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/ potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources—wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric—and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone’s favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. A number of individuals have helped in the writing of this book: first among them are the students who took my course on Alternative Energy. I have learned from them and their questions more than they have learned in my classes. Two of these students contributed significantly to the writing of the book: Maria Andersson reviewed several chapters and gave me valuable suggestions. Eric Stewart drew some of the figures. I am very thankful to my colleagues at the University of Texas at San Antonio and at Texas Christian University, for several fruitful discussions on energy and the great challenge our society is facing. I am also very indebted to my own family, not only for their constant support, but also for lending a hand whenever it was needed. My wife, Laura, has been a constant source of inspiration and help. My father-in-law, Dionisio Garcia proofread some Preface ix of the chapters and gave me valuable comments. My son Dimitri, who decided to become a student of nuclear energy, devoted a good part of his vacation time to proof-read the entire manuscript and gave me many excellent suggestions. Emmanuel and Eleni were always there and ready to help. I owe to all my sincere gratitude. Fort Worth, TX, September 2011 Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides Contents 1 Energy Demand and Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Forms and Units of Work, Heat and Energy . . . . . . 1.1.1 Units of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Energy Demand and Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Energy Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Energy Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Energy Prices, OPEC and Politics . . . . . . . 1.3 Reserves, Resources and Future Demand for Energy 1.3.1 Energy Reserves and Resources . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 The Finite Life of a Resource . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 The Hubbert Curve and the Hubbert Peak . . 1.4 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 6 7 13 17 21 23 25 26 30 32 2 Environmental and Ecological Effects of Energy Production and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Environment, Ecology and Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Global Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 The Energy Balance of the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 The Greenhouse Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Major Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect. . 2.2.4 Remedial Actions for Global Warming . . . . . . . 2.2.5 The Failure of the Copenhagen Summit . . . . . . 2.3 Acid Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Lead Abatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Thermal Pollution and Fresh-Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Nuclear Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Initial Treatment of the Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Long-Term Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 34 35 36 38 40 42 45 47 51 53 55 57 58 xi xii 3 4 Contents 2.7 Sustainable Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 63 Fundamentals of Energy Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Origins of Thermodynamics and Historical Context . 3.2 Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . 3.3 Work, Heat and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Sign Convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Balance. 3.4.1 Closed Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Cyclic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3 Open Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 Implications of the Second Law on Energy Conversion Systems and Processes . . . . . . . 3.6 Thermal Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Vapor Power Cycles: The Rankine Cycle . . 3.6.2 Gas Cycles: The Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles . . . . . 3.7 Exergy: Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1 Geothermal Energy Resources . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 Fossil-Fuel Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.3 Radiation: The Sun as Energy Resource . . . 3.7.4 Second Law Efficiency: Utilization Factor. . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 65 68 70 70 71 72 72 73 74 75 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 81 82 84 87 89 90 91 93 94 97 Introduction to Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Elements of Atomic and Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Atoms and Nuclei: Basic Definitions . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Atomic Mass, Mass Defect and Binding Energy. . . 4.1.3 Nuclear Reactions and Energy Released . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.5 Rate of Radioactive Decay: Half Life . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Interactions of Neutrons with Nuclei. . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Cross Sections of Common Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Neutron Energies: Thermal Neutrons . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 The Chain Reaction: Probability of Fission . . . . . . 4.2.5 The Moderation Process and Common Moderators . 4.2.6 Fission Products and Energy Released in Chain Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Conversion and Breeding Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 100 100 102 103 105 107 110 111 113 114 117 121 .. .. 122 123 Contents xiii 4.4 Useful Calculations and Numbers for Electric Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 Nuclear Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Basic Components of a Thermal Nuclear Power Plant . . . . 5.1.1 The Reactor Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 The Fuel Moderator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 The Reactor Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 The Control Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.5 The Shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Nuclear Reactor Types and Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 The CANDU Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.4 The Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.5 Other Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Cooling of Nuclear Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants: Three-Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima Dai-ichi . . . . . . 5.3.2 The Accident at the Three-Mile Island . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 The Accident at Chernobyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 The Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi. . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Environmental, Safety and Societal Issues for Thermal Nuclear Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Breeder Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Fast Breeder Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Future of Nuclear Energy: To Breed or Not to Breed? . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fusion Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 The Energy of the Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Man-Made Fusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 The Paths to Form Helium-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 The Deuterium–Tritium (DT) Fusion Reaction . . . 6.2.3 Magnetic and Inertial Confinement of Plasma . . . 6.3 A Fusion Electric Power Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 ‘‘Cold Fusion,’’ Other Myths and Scientific Ethics . . . . . . 6.5.1 Muon Atomic Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.2 Sonoluminescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Cold Fusion in a Test-Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.4 Ethical Lessons from the ‘‘Cold Fusion’’ Debacle. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 131 132 134 136 136 138 139 140 143 144 145 147 148 . . . . . . . . 149 149 152 157 . . . . . . . . . . 158 161 164 165 172 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 176 177 178 181 186 188 189 189 189 190 192 194 xiv 7 8 9 Contents Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Earth-Sun Mechanics and Solar Radiation . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Solar Spectrum and Insolation on a Terrestrial Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Average Annual Solar Power: Solar Energy Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Solar-Thermal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Power Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Solar Reflectors and Heliostats. . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.3 Energy Losses and Thermal Power Plant Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.4 Solar Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.5 Passive Solar Heating: Solar Collectors. . . . . . 7.3 Direct Solar-Electric Energy Conversion: Photovoltaics 7.3.1 Band Theory of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Solar Cells and Direct Energy Conversion. . . . 7.3.3 Efficiency of Solar Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4 A Futuristic Concept: The Space Solar Power Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Environmental Issues of Solar Energy Utilization . . . . . ..... ..... 195 196 ..... 198 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 203 204 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 214 216 219 219 221 223 ..... ..... 226 227 Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Wind Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Early Types of Wind Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Wind Power Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Principles of Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Wind: The Boundary Layer and Exceedance Curves . . . . 8.2.2 Probability Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Fundamentals of Wind Power Generation . . . . . . . 8.2.4 Efficiency of Actual Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Power Generation Systems: Parts of Common Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Smaller Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Other Wind Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 The Future of Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Environmental Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Geothermal Resources. 9.2 Geothermal Power Plants. . . . . 9.2.1 Dry Steam Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 231 233 235 236 .. 237 .. .. .. 240 241 245 . . . . . . . . . . 246 249 250 252 253 . . . . . . . . . . 257 257 261 263 264 Contents xv 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 Single-Flashing Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual Flashing Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Several Flashing Processes: A Useful Theoretical Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 Binary Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.6 Hybrid Geothermal-Fossil Power Units . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Effects of Impurities in the Geothermal Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Cooling Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Geothermal District Heating: An Example of Exergy Savings and Environmental Benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Environmental Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 267 . . . . . 268 271 273 274 279 . . . 280 282 285 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 ...
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