Chapter 9 Foreign Policy WWI

Chapter 9 Foreign Policy WWI - FOREIGN POLICY 1914-1920 THE...

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143 FOREIGN POLICY 1914-1920: THE UNITED STATES AND THE GREAT WAR (WORLD WAR I) The great questions of the day are not decided by speeches and majority votes but by blood and iron. Otto von Bismarck (1815-98) READINGS: Stranges, Chapter 9 Henretta, Chapter 21 Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front I. INTRODUCTION In Europe the last decade before the outbreak of war in 1914 was a time of idealism, revolutionary philosophy, and a large number of workers’ strikes. II. GENERAL BACKGROUND TO WORLD WAR I World unrest prior to the United States’s entry in the war French-German crises arose in Morocco in 1905 and 1911 over mineral resources such as coal, iron ore, lead, and zinc. War broke out between Italy and Turkey in 1911-12. Italy attacked and annexed Libya which was part of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire, a decaying empire whose beginning goes back to the late 1200s. War broke out in the Balkans in 1912-13 because smaller countries, such as Macedonia and Albania, were seeking independence from the Ottoman empire. Bulgaria in 1908, Serbia in 1882, Romania in 1881, and Greece in 1830 had gained their independence from Turkey. Bosnia and Herzegovina had been under Turkish control since the fifteenth century, but from 1878 to 1908 Austrian troops occupied these two provinces and Austria formally annexed them in October 1908. The Serbs resented the annexation because most of Bosnia’s population was Serbian, and so did Russia. German threats forced Russia to accept the annexation in March 1909. But the crisis left much international bitterness and led the Serbs within Bosnia to begin anti-Austrian terrorist attacks. The immediate cause of World War I The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914), heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire (established in 1867), and his wife Sophie (1868-1914), at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, on 28 June 1914 was the immediate cause of the war. Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918), a young Serb, was the assassin. The Archduke had gone to Bosnia, then a part of the Austro- Hungarian empire, to observe army maneuvers. About seven conspirators located along the route of the archduke’s motorcade were part of the plot, which almost failed earlier that day.
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144 The two sides Austria-Hungary presented Serbia, whom they believed had organized the assassination, with a list of ten demands that included control of the Serbian press and education, dissolution of the secret Serbian youth organization, and arrest of the conspirators, which the Serbs mostly accepted. But Austria-Hungary wanted to stem the rise of Balkan nationalism, and on 28 July 1914 it declared war on Serbia. The conflict could not be localized because a system of alliances divided Europe. The war began on 1 August 1914 when Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, declared war on
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Chapter 9 Foreign Policy WWI - FOREIGN POLICY 1914-1920 THE...

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